Core drivers reference

These drivers are for the core device and the peripherals closely integrated into it, which do not use the controller mechanism.

System drivers

artiq.coredevice.core module

exception artiq.coredevice.core.CompileError(diagnostic)[source]
class artiq.coredevice.core.Core(dmgr, host, ref_period, ref_multiplier=8, target=or1k)[source]

Core device driver.

Parameters
  • host – hostname or IP address of the core device.

  • ref_period – period of the reference clock for the RTIO subsystem. On platforms that use clock multiplication and SERDES-based PHYs, this is the period after multiplication. For example, with a RTIO core clocked at 125MHz and a SERDES multiplication factor of 8, the reference period is 1ns. The time machine unit is equal to this period.

  • ref_multiplier – ratio between the RTIO fine timestamp frequency and the RTIO coarse timestamp frequency (e.g. SERDES multiplication factor).

break_realtime()[source]

Set the time cursor after the current value of the hardware RTIO counter plus a margin of 125000 machine units.

If the time cursor is already after that position, this function does nothing.

get_rtio_counter_mu()[source]

Retrieve the current value of the hardware RTIO timeline counter.

As the timing of kernel code executed on the CPU is inherently non-deterministic, the return value is by necessity only a lower bound for the actual value of the hardware register at the instant when execution resumes in the caller.

For a more detailed description of these concepts, see ARTIQ Real-Time I/O Concepts.

get_rtio_destination_status(destination)[source]

Returns whether the specified RTIO destination is up. This is particularly useful in startup kernels to delay startup until certain DRTIO destinations are up.

mu_to_seconds(mu)[source]

Convert machine units (RTIO cycles) to seconds.

Parameters

mu – cycle count to convert.

reset()[source]

Clear RTIO FIFOs, release RTIO PHY reset, and set the time cursor at the current value of the hardware RTIO counter plus a margin of 125000 machine units.

seconds_to_mu(seconds)[source]

Convert seconds to the corresponding number of machine units (RTIO cycles).

Parameters

seconds – time (in seconds) to convert.

wait_until_mu(cursor_mu)[source]

Block execution until the hardware RTIO counter reaches the given value (see get_rtio_counter_mu()).

If the hardware counter has already passed the given time, the function returns immediately.

artiq.coredevice.exceptions module

exception artiq.coredevice.exceptions.CacheError[source]

Raised when putting a value into a cache row would violate memory safety.

exception artiq.coredevice.exceptions.ClockFailure[source]

Raised when RTIO PLL has lost lock.

class artiq.coredevice.exceptions.CoreException(name, message, params, traceback)[source]

Information about an exception raised or passed through the core device.

exception artiq.coredevice.exceptions.DMAError[source]

Raised when performing an invalid DMA operation.

exception artiq.coredevice.exceptions.I2CError[source]

Raised when a I2C transaction fails.

exception artiq.coredevice.exceptions.InternalError[source]

Raised when the runtime encounters an internal error condition.

exception artiq.coredevice.exceptions.RTIODestinationUnreachable[source]

Raised with a RTIO operation could not be completed due to a DRTIO link being down.

exception artiq.coredevice.exceptions.RTIOOverflow[source]

Raised when at least one event could not be registered into the RTIO input FIFO because it was full (CPU not reading fast enough).

This does not interrupt operations further than cancelling the current read attempt and discarding some events. Reading can be reattempted after the exception is caught, and events will be partially retrieved.

exception artiq.coredevice.exceptions.RTIOUnderflow[source]

Raised when the CPU or DMA core fails to submit a RTIO event early enough (with respect to the event’s timestamp).

The offending event is discarded and the RTIO core keeps operating.

exception artiq.coredevice.exceptions.SPIError[source]

Raised when a SPI transaction fails.

exception artiq.coredevice.exceptions.WatchdogExpired[source]

Raised when a watchdog expires.

artiq.coredevice.dma module

Direct Memory Access (DMA) extension.

This feature allows storing pre-defined sequences of output RTIO events into the core device’s SDRAM, and playing them back at higher speeds than the CPU alone could achieve.

class artiq.coredevice.dma.CoreDMA(dmgr, core_device=core)[source]

Core device Direct Memory Access (DMA) driver.

Gives access to the DMA functionality of the core device.

erase(name)[source]

Removes the DMA trace with the given name from storage.

get_handle(name)[source]

Returns a handle to a previously recorded DMA trace. The returned handle is only valid until the next call to record() or erase().

playback(name)[source]

Replays a previously recorded DMA trace. This function blocks until the entire trace is submitted to the RTIO FIFOs.

playback_handle(handle)[source]

Replays a handle obtained with get_handle(). Using this function is much faster than playback() for replaying a set of traces repeatedly, but incurs the overhead of managing the handles onto the programmer.

record(name)[source]

Returns a context manager that will record a DMA trace called name. Any previously recorded trace with the same name is overwritten. The trace will persist across kernel switches.

class artiq.coredevice.dma.DMARecordContextManager[source]

Context manager returned by CoreDMA.record().

Upon entering, starts recording a DMA trace. All RTIO operations are redirected to a newly created DMA buffer after this call, and now is reset to zero.

Upon leaving, stops recording a DMA trace. All recorded RTIO operations are stored in a newly created trace, and now is restored to the value it had before the context manager was entered.

artiq.coredevice.cache module

class artiq.coredevice.cache.CoreCache(dmgr, core_device=core)[source]

Core device cache access

get(key)[source]

Extract a value from the core device cache. After a value is extracted, it cannot be replaced with another value using put() until all kernel functions finish executing; attempting to replace it will result in a artiq.coredevice.exceptions.CacheError.

If the cache does not contain any value associated with key, an empty list is returned.

The value is not copied, so mutating it will change what’s stored in the cache.

Parameters

key (str) – cache key

Returns

a list of 32-bit integers

put(key, value)[source]

Put a value into the core device cache. The value will persist until reboot.

To remove a value from the cache, call put() with an empty list.

Parameters
  • key (str) – cache key

  • value (list) – a list of 32-bit integers

Digital I/O drivers

artiq.coredevice.ttl module

Drivers for TTL signals on RTIO.

TTL channels (including the clock generator) all support output event replacement. For example, pulses of “zero” length (e.g. TTLInOut.on() immediately followed by TTLInOut.off(), without a delay) are suppressed.

class artiq.coredevice.ttl.TTLClockGen(dmgr, channel, acc_width=24, core_device=core)[source]

RTIO TTL clock generator driver.

This should be used with TTL channels that have a clock generator built into the gateware (not compatible with regular TTL channels).

The time cursor is not modified by any function in this class.

Parameters
  • channel – channel number

  • acc_width – accumulator width in bits

frequency_to_ftw(frequency)[source]

Returns the frequency tuning word corresponding to the given frequency.

ftw_to_frequency(ftw)[source]

Returns the frequency corresponding to the given frequency tuning word.

set(frequency)[source]

Like set_mu(), but using Hz.

set_mu(frequency)[source]

Set the frequency of the clock, in machine units, at the current position of the time cursor.

This also sets the phase, as the time of the first generated rising edge corresponds to the time of the call.

The clock generator contains a 24-bit phase accumulator operating on the RTIO clock. At each RTIO clock tick, the frequency tuning word is added to the phase accumulator. The most significant bit of the phase accumulator is connected to the TTL line. Setting the frequency tuning word has the additional effect of setting the phase accumulator to 0x800000.

Due to the way the clock generator operates, frequency tuning words that are not powers of two cause jitter of one RTIO clock cycle at the output.

stop()[source]

Stop the toggling of the clock and set the output level to 0.

class artiq.coredevice.ttl.TTLInOut(dmgr, channel, gate_latency_mu=None, core_device=core)[source]

RTIO TTL input/output driver.

In output mode, provides functions to set the logic level on the signal.

In input mode, provides functions to analyze the incoming signal, with real-time gating to prevent overflows.

RTIO TTLs supports zero-length transition suppression. For example, if two pulses are emitted back-to-back with no delay between them, they will be merged into a single pulse with a duration equal to the sum of the durations of the original pulses.

This should be used with bidirectional channels.

Note that the channel is in input mode by default. If you need to drive a signal, you must call output(). If the channel is in output mode most of the time in your setup, it is a good idea to call output() in the startup kernel.

There are three input APIs: gating, sampling and watching. When one API is active (e.g. the gate is open, or the input events have not been fully read out), another API must not be used simultaneously.

Parameters

channel – channel number

count(up_to_timestamp_mu)[source]

Consume RTIO input events until the hardware timestamp counter has reached the specified timestamp and return the number of observed events.

This function does not interact with the timeline cursor.

See the gate_*() family of methods to select the input transitions that generate events, and timestamp_mu() to obtain the timestamp of the first event rather than an accumulated count.

Parameters

up_to_timestamp_mu – The timestamp up to which execution is blocked, that is, up to which input events are guaranteed to be taken into account. (Events with later timestamps might still be registered if they are already available.)

Returns

The number of events before the timeout elapsed (0 if none observed).

Examples

To count events on channel ttl_input, up to the current timeline position:

ttl_input.count(now_mu())

If other events are scheduled between the end of the input gate period and when the number of events is counted, using now_mu() as timeout consumes an unnecessary amount of timeline slack. In such cases, it can be beneficial to pass a more precise timestamp, for example:

gate_end_mu = ttl_input.gate_rising(100 * us)

# Schedule a long pulse sequence, represented here by a delay.
delay(10 * ms)

# Get number of rising edges. This will block until the end of
# the gate window, but does not wait for the long pulse sequence
# afterwards, thus (likely) completing with a large amount of
# slack left.
num_rising_edges = ttl_input.count(gate_end_mu)

The gate_*() family of methods return the cursor at the end of the window, allowing this to be expressed in a compact fashion:

ttl_input.count(ttl_input.gate_rising(100 * us))
gate_both(duration)[source]

Register both rising and falling edge events for the specified duration (in seconds).

The time cursor is advanced by the specified duration.

Returns

The timeline cursor at the end of the gate window, for convenience when used with count()/timestamp_mu().

gate_both_mu(duration)[source]

Register both rising and falling edge events for the specified duration (in machine units).

The time cursor is advanced by the specified duration.

Returns

The timeline cursor at the end of the gate window, for convenience when used with count()/timestamp_mu().

gate_falling(duration)[source]

Register falling edge events for the specified duration (in seconds).

The time cursor is advanced by the specified duration.

Returns

The timeline cursor at the end of the gate window, for convenience when used with count()/timestamp_mu().

gate_falling_mu(duration)[source]

Register falling edge events for the specified duration (in machine units).

The time cursor is advanced by the specified duration.

Returns

The timeline cursor at the end of the gate window, for convenience when used with count()/timestamp_mu().

gate_rising(duration)[source]

Register rising edge events for the specified duration (in seconds).

The time cursor is advanced by the specified duration.

Returns

The timeline cursor at the end of the gate window, for convenience when used with count()/timestamp_mu().

gate_rising_mu(duration)[source]

Register rising edge events for the specified duration (in machine units).

The time cursor is advanced by the specified duration.

Returns

The timeline cursor at the end of the gate window, for convenience when used with count()/timestamp_mu().

input()[source]

Set the direction to input at the current position of the time cursor.

There must be a delay of at least one RTIO clock cycle before any other command can be issued.

This method only configures the direction at the FPGA. When using buffered I/O interfaces, such as the Sinara TTL cards, the buffer direction must be configured separately in the hardware.

off()[source]

Set the output to a logic low state at the current position of the time cursor.

The channel must be in output mode.

The time cursor is not modified by this function.

on()[source]

Set the output to a logic high state at the current position of the time cursor.

The channel must be in output mode.

The time cursor is not modified by this function.

output()[source]

Set the direction to output at the current position of the time cursor.

There must be a delay of at least one RTIO clock cycle before any other command can be issued.

This method only configures the direction at the FPGA. When using buffered I/O interfaces, such as the Sinara TTL cards, the buffer direction must be configured separately in the hardware.

pulse(duration)[source]

Pulse the output high for the specified duration (in seconds).

The time cursor is advanced by the specified duration.

pulse_mu(duration)[source]

Pulse the output high for the specified duration (in machine units).

The time cursor is advanced by the specified duration.

sample_get()[source]

Returns the value of a sample previously obtained with sample_input().

Multiple samples may be queued (using multiple calls to sample_input()) into the RTIO FIFOs and subsequently read out using multiple calls to this function.

This function does not interact with the time cursor.

sample_get_nonrt()[source]

Convenience function that obtains the value of a sample at the position of the time cursor, breaks realtime, and returns the sample value.

sample_input()[source]

Instructs the RTIO core to read the value of the TTL input at the position of the time cursor.

The time cursor is not modified by this function.

timestamp_mu(up_to_timestamp_mu)[source]

Return the timestamp of the next RTIO input event, or -1 if the hardware timestamp counter reaches the given value before an event is received.

This function does not interact with the timeline cursor.

See the gate_*() family of methods to select the input transitions that generate events, and count() for usage examples.

Parameters

up_to_timestamp_mu – The timestamp up to which execution is blocked, that is, up to which input events are guaranteed to be taken into account. (Events with later timestamps might still be registered if they are already available.)

Returns

The timestamp (in machine units) of the first event received; -1 on timeout.

watch_done()[source]

Stop watching the input at the position of the time cursor.

Returns True if the input has not changed state while it was being watched.

The time cursor is not modified by this function. This function always makes the slack negative.

watch_stay_off()[source]

Like watch_stay_on(), but for low levels.

watch_stay_on()[source]

Checks that the input is at a high level at the position of the time cursor and keep checking until watch_done() is called.

Returns True if the input is high. A call to this function must always be followed by an eventual call to watch_done() (use e.g. a try/finally construct to ensure this).

The time cursor is not modified by this function.

class artiq.coredevice.ttl.TTLOut(dmgr, channel, core_device=core)[source]

RTIO TTL output driver.

This should be used with output-only channels.

Parameters

channel – channel number

off()[source]

Set the output to a logic low state at the current position of the time cursor.

The time cursor is not modified by this function.

on()[source]

Set the output to a logic high state at the current position of the time cursor.

The time cursor is not modified by this function.

pulse(duration)[source]

Pulse the output high for the specified duration (in seconds).

The time cursor is advanced by the specified duration.

pulse_mu(duration)[source]

Pulse the output high for the specified duration (in machine units).

The time cursor is advanced by the specified duration.

artiq.coredevice.edge_counter module

Driver for RTIO-enabled TTL edge counter.

Like for the TTL input PHYs, sensitivity can be configured over RTIO (gate_rising(), etc.). In contrast to the former, however, the count is accumulated in gateware, and only a single input event is generated at the end of each gate period:

with parallel:
    doppler_cool()
    self.pmt_counter.gate_rising(1 * ms)

with parallel:
    readout()
    self.pmt_counter.gate_rising(100 * us)

print("Doppler cooling counts:", self.pmt_counter.fetch_count())
print("Readout counts:", self.pmt_counter.fetch_count())

For applications where the timestamps of the individual input events are not required, this has two advantages over TTLInOut.count() beyond raw throughput. First, it is easy to count events during multiple separate periods without blocking to read back counts in between, as illustrated in the above example. Secondly, as each count total only takes up a single input event, it is much easier to acquire counts on several channels in parallel without risking input FIFO overflows:

# Using the TTLInOut driver, pmt_1 input events are only processed
# after pmt_0 is done counting. To avoid RTIOOverflows, a round-robin
# scheme would have to be implemented manually.

with parallel:
    self.pmt_0.gate_rising(10 * ms)
    self.pmt_1.gate_rising(10 * ms)

counts_0 = self.pmt_0.count(now_mu()) # blocks
counts_1 = self.pmt_1.count(now_mu())

#

# Using gateware counters, only a single input event each is
# generated, greatly reducing the load on the input FIFOs:

with parallel:
    self.pmt_0_counter.gate_rising(10 * ms)
    self.pmt_1_counter.gate_rising(10 * ms)

counts_0 = self.pmt_0_counter.fetch_count() # blocks
counts_1 = self.pmt_1_counter.fetch_count()

See artiq.gateware.rtio.phy.edge_counter and artiq.gateware.eem.DIO.add_std() for the gateware components.

exception artiq.coredevice.edge_counter.CounterOverflow[source]

Raised when an edge counter value is read which indicates that the counter might have overflowed.

class artiq.coredevice.edge_counter.EdgeCounter(dmgr, channel, gateware_width=31, core_device=core)[source]

RTIO TTL edge counter driver driver.

Like for regular TTL inputs, timeline periods where the counter is sensitive to a chosen set of input transitions can be specified. Unlike the former, however, the specified edges do not create individual input events; rather, the total count can be requested as a single input event from the core (typically at the end of the gate window).

Parameters
  • channel – The RTIO channel of the gateware phy.

  • gateware_width – The width of the gateware counter register, in bits. This is only used for overflow handling; to change the size, the gateware needs to be rebuilt.

fetch_count()[source]

Wait for and return count total from previously requested input event.

It is valid to trigger multiple gate periods without immediately reading back the count total; the results will be returned in order on subsequent fetch calls.

This function blocks until a result becomes available.

fetch_timestamped_count(timeout_mu=<Mock name='mock.int64()' id='140737300151312'>) -> artiq.compiler.types.TTuple([artiq.compiler.types.TMono('int', OrderedDict([('width', artiq.compiler.types.TValue(64))])), artiq.compiler.types.TMono('int', OrderedDict([('width', artiq.compiler.types.TValue(32))]))])[source]

Wait for and return the timestamp and count total of a previously requested input event.

It is valid to trigger multiple gate periods without immediately reading back the count total; the results will be returned in order on subsequent fetch calls.

This function blocks until a result becomes available or the given timeout elapses.

Returns

A tuple of timestamp (-1 if timeout elapsed) and counter value. (The timestamp is that of the requested input event – typically the gate closing time – and not that of any input edges.)

gate_both(duration)[source]

Count both rising and falling edges for the given duration, and request the total at the end.

The counter is reset at the beginning of the gate period. Use set_config() directly for more detailed control.

Parameters

duration – The duration for which the gate is to stay open.

Returns

The timestamp at the end of the gate period, in machine units.

gate_both_mu(duration_mu)[source]

See gate_both_mu().

gate_falling(duration)[source]

Count falling edges for the given duration and request the total at the end.

The counter is reset at the beginning of the gate period. Use set_config() directly for more detailed control.

Parameters

duration – The duration for which the gate is to stay open.

Returns

The timestamp at the end of the gate period, in machine units.

gate_falling_mu(duration_mu)[source]

See gate_falling().

gate_rising(duration)[source]

Count rising edges for the given duration and request the total at the end.

The counter is reset at the beginning of the gate period. Use set_config() directly for more detailed control.

Parameters

duration – The duration for which the gate is to stay open.

Returns

The timestamp at the end of the gate period, in machine units.

gate_rising_mu(duration_mu)[source]

See gate_rising().

set_config(count_rising: artiq.compiler.types.TMono(‘bool’, OrderedDict()), count_falling: artiq.compiler.types.TMono(‘bool’, OrderedDict()), send_count_event: artiq.compiler.types.TMono(‘bool’, OrderedDict()), reset_to_zero: artiq.compiler.types.TMono(‘bool’, OrderedDict()))[source]

Emit an RTIO event at the current timeline position to set the gateware configuration.

For most use cases, the gate_* wrappers will be more convenient.

Parameters
  • count_rising – Whether to count rising signal edges.

  • count_falling – Whether to count falling signal edges.

  • send_count_event – If True, an input event with the current counter value is generated on the next clock cycle (once).

  • reset_to_zero – If True, the counter value is reset to zero on the next clock cycle (once).

artiq.coredevice.shiftreg module

class artiq.coredevice.shiftreg.ShiftReg(dmgr, clk, ser, latch, n=32, dt=9.999999999999999e-06, ser_in=None)[source]

Driver for shift registers/latch combos connected to TTLs

set(data)[source]

Sets the values of the latch outputs. This does not advance the timeline and the waveform is generated before now.

artiq.coredevice.spi2 module

Driver for generic SPI on RTIO.

This ARTIQ coredevice driver corresponds to the “new” MiSoC SPI core (v2).

Output event replacement is not supported and issuing commands at the same time is an error.

class artiq.coredevice.spi2.SPIMaster(dmgr, channel, div=0, length=0, core_device=core)[source]

Core device Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) bus master.

Owns one SPI bus.

This ARTIQ coredevice driver corresponds to the “new” MiSoC SPI core (v2).

Transfer Sequence:

  • If necessary, set the config register (set_config() and set_config_mu()) to activate and configure the core and to set various transfer parameters like transfer length, clock divider, and chip selects.

  • write() to the data register. Writing starts the transfer.

  • If the transfer included submitting the SPI input data as an RTIO input event (SPI_INPUT set), then read() the data.

  • If SPI_END was not set, repeat the transfer sequence.

A transaction consists of one or more transfers. The chip select pattern is asserted for the entire length of the transaction. All but the last transfer are submitted with SPI_END cleared in the configuration register.

Parameters
frequency_to_div(f)[source]

Convert a SPI clock frequency to the closest SPI clock divider.

read()[source]

Read SPI data submitted by the SPI core.

For bit alignment and bit ordering see set_config().

This method does not alter the timeline.

Returns

SPI input data.

set_config(flags, length, freq, cs)[source]

Set the configuration register.

  • If SPI_CS_POLARITY is cleared (cs active low, the default), “cs all deasserted” means “all cs_n bits high”.

  • cs_n is not mandatory in the pads supplied to the gateware core. Framing and chip selection can also be handled independently through other means, e.g. TTLOut.

  • If there is a miso wire in the pads supplied in the gateware, input and output may be two signals (“4-wire SPI”), otherwise mosi must be used for both output and input (“3-wire SPI”) and SPI_HALF_DUPLEX must to be set when reading data or when the slave drives the mosi signal at any point.

  • The first bit output on mosi is always the MSB/LSB (depending on SPI_LSB_FIRST) of the data written, independent of the length of the transfer. The last bit input from miso always ends up in the LSB/MSB (respectively) of the data read, independent of the length of the transfer.

  • cs is asserted at the beginning and deasserted at the end of the transaction.

  • cs handling is agnostic to whether it is one-hot or decoded somewhere downstream. If it is decoded, “cs all deasserted” should be handled accordingly (no slave selected). If it is one-hot, asserting multiple slaves should only be attempted if miso is either not connected between slaves, or open collector, or correctly multiplexed externally.

  • Changes to the configuration register take effect on the start of the next transfer with the exception of SPI_OFFLINE which takes effect immediately.

  • The SPI core can only be written to when it is idle or waiting for the next transfer data. Writing (set_config(), set_config_mu() or write()) when the core is busy will result in an RTIO busy error being logged.

This method advances the timeline by one coarse RTIO clock cycle.

Configuration flags:

  • SPI_OFFLINE: all pins high-z (reset=1)

  • SPI_END: transfer in progress (reset=1)

  • SPI_INPUT: submit SPI read data as RTIO input event when transfer is complete (reset=0)

  • SPI_CS_POLARITY: active level of cs_n (reset=0)

  • SPI_CLK_POLARITY: idle level of clk (reset=0)

  • SPI_CLK_PHASE: first edge after cs assertion to sample data on (reset=0). In Motorola/Freescale SPI language (SPI_CLK_POLARITY, SPI_CLK_PHASE) == (CPOL, CPHA):

    • (0, 0): idle low, output on falling, input on rising

    • (0, 1): idle low, output on rising, input on falling

    • (1, 0): idle high, output on rising, input on falling

    • (1, 1): idle high, output on falling, input on rising

  • SPI_LSB_FIRST: LSB is the first bit on the wire (reset=0)

  • SPI_HALF_DUPLEX: 3-wire SPI, in/out on mosi (reset=0)

Parameters
  • flags – A bit map of SPI_* flags.

  • length – Number of bits to write during the next transfer. (reset=1)

  • freq – Desired SPI clock frequency. (reset=f_rtio/2)

  • cs – Bit pattern of chip selects to assert. Or number of the chip select to assert if cs is decoded downstream. (reset=0)

set_config_mu(flags, length, div, cs)[source]

Set the config register (in SPI bus machine units).

See also

set_config()

Parameters
  • flags – A bit map of SPI_* flags.

  • length – Number of bits to write during the next transfer. (reset=1)

  • div – Counter load value to divide the RTIO clock by to generate the SPI clock. (minimum=2, reset=2) f_rtio_clk/f_spi == div. If div is odd, the setup phase of the SPI clock is one coarse RTIO clock cycle longer than the hold phase.

  • cs – Bit pattern of chip selects to assert. Or number of the chip select to assert if cs is decoded downstream. (reset=0)

update_xfer_duration_mu(div, length)[source]

Calculate and set the transfer duration.

This method updates the SPI transfer duration which is used in write() to advance the timeline.

Use this method (and avoid having to call set_config_mu()) when the divider and transfer length have been configured (using set_config() or set_config_mu()) by previous experiments and are known.

This method is portable and can also be called from e.g. __init__().

Warning

If this method is called while recording a DMA sequence, the playback of the sequence will not update the driver state. When required, update the driver state manually (by calling this method) after playing back a DMA sequence.

Parameters
write(data)[source]

Write SPI data to shift register register and start transfer.

  • The data register and the shift register are 32 bits wide.

  • Data writes take one ref_period cycle.

  • A transaction consisting of a single transfer (SPI_END) takes xfer_duration_mu =(n + 1)*div cycles RTIO time where n is the number of bits and div is the SPI clock divider.

  • Transfers in a multi-transfer transaction take up to one SPI clock cycle less time depending on multiple parameters. Advanced users may rewind the timeline appropriately to achieve faster multi-transfer transactions.

  • The SPI core will be busy for the duration of the SPI transfer.

  • For bit alignment and bit ordering see set_config().

  • The SPI core can only be written to when it is idle or waiting for the next transfer data. Writing (set_config(), set_config_mu() or write()) when the core is busy will result in an RTIO busy error being logged.

This method advances the timeline by the duration of one single-transfer SPI transaction (xfer_duration_mu).

Parameters

data – SPI output data to be written.

class artiq.coredevice.spi2.NRTSPIMaster(dmgr, busno=0, core_device=core)[source]

Core device non-realtime Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) bus master. Owns one non-realtime SPI bus.

With this driver, SPI transactions and are performed by the CPU without involving RTIO.

Realtime and non-realtime buses are separate and defined at bitstream compilation time.

See SPIMaster for a description of the methods.

set_config_mu(flags=0, length=8, div=6, cs=1)[source]

Set the config register.

Note that the non-realtime SPI cores are usually clocked by the system clock and not the RTIO clock. In many cases, the SPI configuration is already set by the firmware and you do not need to call this method.

artiq.coredevice.i2c module

Non-realtime drivers for I2C chips on the core device.

class artiq.coredevice.i2c.PCA9548(dmgr, busno=0, address=232, core_device=core)[source]

Driver for the PCA9548 I2C bus switch.

I2C transactions not real-time, and are performed by the CPU without involving RTIO.

On the KC705, this chip is used for selecting the I2C buses on the two FMC connectors. HPC=1, LPC=2.

select(mask)[source]

Enable/disable channels.

Parameters

mask – Bit mask of enabled channels

set(channel)[source]

Enable one channel.

Parameters

channel – channel number (0-7)

class artiq.coredevice.i2c.TCA6424A(dmgr, busno=0, address=68, core_device=core)[source]

Driver for the TCA6424A I2C I/O expander.

I2C transactions not real-time, and are performed by the CPU without involving RTIO.

On the NIST QC2 hardware, this chip is used for switching the directions of TTL buffers.

set(outputs)[source]

Drive all pins of the chip to the levels given by the specified 24-bit word.

On the QC2 hardware, the LSB of the word determines the direction of TTL0 (on a given FMC card) and the MSB that of TTL23.

A bit set to 1 means the TTL is an output.

artiq.coredevice.i2c.i2c_poll(busno, busaddr)[source]

Poll I2C device at address.

Parameters
  • busno – I2C bus number

  • busaddr – 8 bit I2C device address (LSB=0)

Returns

True if the poll was ACKed

artiq.coredevice.i2c.i2c_read_byte(busno, busaddr)[source]

Read one byte from a device.

Parameters
  • busno – I2C bus number

  • busaddr – 8 bit I2C device address (LSB=0)

Returns

Byte read

artiq.coredevice.i2c.i2c_read_many(busno, busaddr, addr, data)[source]

Transfer multiple bytes from a device.

Parameters
  • busno – I2c bus number

  • busaddr – 8 bit I2C device address (LSB=0)

  • addr – 8 bit data address

  • data – List of integers to be filled with the data read. One entry ber byte.

artiq.coredevice.i2c.i2c_write_byte(busno, busaddr, data, ack=True)[source]

Write one byte to a device.

Parameters
  • busno – I2C bus number

  • busaddr – 8 bit I2C device address (LSB=0)

  • data – Data byte to be written

  • nack – Allow NACK

artiq.coredevice.i2c.i2c_write_many(busno, busaddr, addr, data, ack_last=True)[source]

Transfer multiple bytes to a device.

Parameters
  • busno – I2c bus number

  • busaddr – 8 bit I2C device address (LSB=0)

  • addr – 8 bit data address

  • data – Data bytes to be written

  • ack_last – Expect I2C ACK of the last byte written. If False, the last byte may be NACKed (e.g. EEPROM full page writes).

artiq.coredevice.pcf8574a module

class artiq.coredevice.pcf8574a.PCF8574A(dmgr, busno=0, address=124, core_device=core)[source]

Driver for the PCF8574 I2C remote 8-bit I/O expander.

I2C transactions not real-time, and are performed by the CPU without involving RTIO.

get()[source]

Retrieve quasi-bidirectional pin input data.

Returns

Pin data

set(data)[source]

Drive data on the quasi-bidirectional pins.

Parameters

data – Pin data. High bits are weakly driven high (and thus inputs), low bits are strongly driven low.

RF generation drivers

artiq.coredevice.urukul module

class artiq.coredevice.urukul.CPLD(dmgr, spi_device, io_update_device=None, dds_reset_device=None, sync_device=None, sync_sel=0, clk_sel=0, clk_div=0, rf_sw=0, refclk=125000000.0, att=0, sync_div=None, core_device=core)[source]

Urukul CPLD SPI router and configuration interface.

Parameters
  • spi_device – SPI bus device name

  • io_update_device – IO update RTIO TTLOut channel name

  • dds_reset_device – DDS reset RTIO TTLOut channel name

  • sync_device – AD9910 SYNC_IN RTIO TTLClockGen channel name

  • refclk – Reference clock (SMA, MMCX or on-board 100 MHz oscillator) frequency in Hz

  • clk_sel – Reference clock selection. For hardware revision >= 1.3 valid options are: 0 - internal 100MHz XO; 1 - front-panel SMA; 2 internal MMCX. For hardware revision <= v1.2 valid options are: 0 - either XO or MMCX dependent on component population; 1 SMA. Unsupported clocking options are silently ignored.

  • clk_div – Reference clock divider. Valid options are 0: variant dependent default (divide-by-4 for AD9910 and divide-by-1 for AD9912); 1: divide-by-1; 2: divide-by-2; 3: divide-by-4. On Urukul boards with CPLD gateware before v1.3.1 only the default (0, i.e. variant dependent divider) is valid.

  • sync_sel – SYNC (multi-chip synchronisation) signal source selection. 0 corresponds to SYNC_IN being supplied by the FPGA via the EEM connector. 1 corresponds to SYNC_OUT from DDS0 being distributed to the other chips.

  • rf_sw – Initial CPLD RF switch register setting (default: 0x0). Knowledge of this state is not transferred between experiments.

  • att – Initial attenuator setting shift register (default: 0x00000000). See also get_att_mu() which retrieves the hardware state without side effects. Knowledge of this state is not transferred between experiments.

  • sync_div – SYNC_IN generator divider. The ratio between the coarse RTIO frequency and the SYNC_IN generator frequency (default: 2 if sync_device was specified).

  • core_device – Core device name

If the clocking is incorrect (for example, setting clk_sel to the front panel SMA with no clock connected), then the init() method of the DDS channels can fail with the error message PLL lock timeout.

cfg_sw(channel, on)[source]

Configure the RF switches through the configuration register.

These values are logically OR-ed with the LVDS lines on EEM1.

Parameters
  • channel – Channel index (0-3)

  • on – Switch value

cfg_switches(state)[source]

Configure all four RF switches through the configuration register.

Parameters

state – RF switch state as a 4 bit integer.

cfg_write(cfg)[source]

Write to the configuration register.

See urukul_cfg() for possible flags.

Parameters

data – 24 bit data to be written. Will be stored at cfg_reg.

get_att_mu()[source]

Return the digital step attenuator settings in machine units.

The result is stored and will be used in future calls of set_att_mu().

Returns

32 bit attenuator settings

init(blind=False)[source]

Initialize and detect Urukul.

Resets the DDS I/O interface and verifies correct CPLD gateware version. Does not pulse the DDS MASTER_RESET as that confuses the AD9910.

Parameters

blind – Do not attempt to verify presence and compatibility.

io_rst()[source]

Pulse IO_RST

set_all_att_mu(att_reg)[source]

Set all four digital step attenuators (in machine units).

See also

set_att_mu()

Parameters

att_reg – Attenuator setting string (32 bit)

set_att(channel, att)[source]

Set digital step attenuator in SI units.

This method will write the attenuator settings of all four channels.

See also

set_att_mu()

Parameters
  • channel – Attenuator channel (0-3).

  • att – Attenuation setting in dB. Higher value is more attenuation. Minimum attenuation is 0*dB, maximum attenuation is 31.5*dB.

set_att_mu(channel, att)[source]

Set digital step attenuator in machine units.

This method will also write the attenuator settings of the three other channels. Use get_att_mu() to retrieve the hardware state set in previous experiments.

Parameters
  • channel – Attenuator channel (0-3).

  • att – 8-bit digital attenuation setting: 255 minimum attenuation, 0 maximum attenuation (31.5 dB)

set_profile(profile)[source]

Set the PROFILE pins.

The PROFILE pins are common to all four DDS channels.

Parameters

profile – PROFILE pins in numeric representation (0-7).

set_sync_div(div)[source]

Set the SYNC_IN AD9910 pulse generator frequency and align it to the current RTIO timestamp.

The SYNC_IN signal is derived from the coarse RTIO clock and the divider must be a power of two. Configure sync_sel == 0.

Parameters

div – SYNC_IN frequency divider. Must be a power of two. Minimum division ratio is 2. Maximum division ratio is 16.

sta_read()[source]

Read the status register.

Use any of the following functions to extract values:

Returns

The status register value.

artiq.coredevice.urukul.urukul_cfg(rf_sw, led, profile, io_update, mask_nu, clk_sel, sync_sel, rst, io_rst, clk_div)[source]

Build Urukul CPLD configuration register

artiq.coredevice.urukul.urukul_sta_ifc_mode(sta)[source]

Return the IFC_MODE status from Urukul status register value.

artiq.coredevice.urukul.urukul_sta_pll_lock(sta)[source]

Return the PLL_LOCK status from Urukul status register value.

artiq.coredevice.urukul.urukul_sta_proto_rev(sta)[source]

Return the PROTO_REV value from Urukul status register value.

artiq.coredevice.urukul.urukul_sta_rf_sw(sta)[source]

Return the RF switch status from Urukul status register value.

artiq.coredevice.urukul.urukul_sta_smp_err(sta)[source]

Return the SMP_ERR status from Urukul status register value.

artiq.coredevice.ad9910 module

class artiq.coredevice.ad9910.AD9910(dmgr, chip_select, cpld_device, sw_device=None, pll_n=40, pll_cp=7, pll_vco=5, sync_delay_seed=- 1, io_update_delay=0, pll_en=1)[source]

AD9910 DDS channel on Urukul.

This class supports a single DDS channel and exposes the DDS, the digital step attenuator, and the RF switch.

Parameters
  • chip_select – Chip select configuration. On Urukul this is an encoded chip select and not “one-hot”: 3 to address multiple chips (as configured through CFG_MASK_NU), 4-7 for individual channels.

  • cpld_device – Name of the Urukul CPLD this device is on.

  • sw_device – Name of the RF switch device. The RF switch is a TTLOut channel available as the sw attribute of this instance.

  • pll_n – DDS PLL multiplier. The DDS sample clock is f_ref/clk_div*pll_n where f_ref is the reference frequency and clk_div is the reference clock divider (both set in the parent Urukul CPLD instance).

  • pll_en – PLL enable bit, set to 0 to bypass PLL (default: 1). Note that when bypassing the PLL the red front panel LED may remain on.

  • pll_cp – DDS PLL charge pump setting.

  • pll_vco – DDS PLL VCO range selection.

  • sync_delay_seed – SYNC_IN delay tuning starting value. To stabilize the SYNC_IN delay tuning, run tune_sync_delay() once and set this to the delay tap number returned (default: -1 to signal no synchronization and no tuning during init()). Can be a string of the form “eeprom_device:byte_offset” to read the value from a I2C EEPROM; in which case, io_update_delay must be set to the same string value.

  • io_update_delay – IO_UPDATE pulse alignment delay. To align IO_UPDATE to SYNC_CLK, run tune_io_update_delay() and set this to the delay tap number returned. Can be a string of the form “eeprom_device:byte_offset” to read the value from a I2C EEPROM; in which case, sync_delay_seed must be set to the same string value.

amplitude_to_asf(amplitude)[source]

Return 14-bit amplitude scale factor corresponding to given fractional amplitude.

amplitude_to_ram(amplitude, ram)[source]

Convert amplitude values to RAM profile data.

To be used with RAM_DEST_ASF.

Parameters
  • amplitude – List of amplitude values in units of full scale.

  • ram – List to write RAM data into. Suitable for write_ram().

asf_to_amplitude(asf)[source]

Return amplitude as a fraction of full scale corresponding to given amplitude scale factor.

cfg_sw(state)[source]

Set CPLD CFG RF switch state. The RF switch is controlled by the logical or of the CPLD configuration shift register RF switch bit and the SW TTL line (if used).

Parameters

state – CPLD CFG RF switch bit

clear_smp_err()[source]

Clear the SMP_ERR flag and enables SMP_ERR validity monitoring.

Violations of the SYNC_IN sample and hold margins will result in SMP_ERR being asserted. This then also activates the red LED on the respective Urukul channel.

Also modifies CFR2.

frequency_to_ftw(frequency)[source]

Return the 32-bit frequency tuning word corresponding to the given frequency.

frequency_to_ram(frequency, ram)[source]

Convert frequency values to RAM profile data.

To be used with RAM_DEST_FTW.

Parameters
  • frequency – List of frequency values in Hz.

  • ram – List to write RAM data into. Suitable for write_ram().

ftw_to_frequency(ftw)[source]

Return the frequency corresponding to the given frequency tuning word.

init(blind=False)[source]

Initialize and configure the DDS.

Sets up SPI mode, confirms chip presence, powers down unused blocks, configures the PLL, waits for PLL lock. Uses the IO_UPDATE signal multiple times.

Parameters

blind – Do not read back DDS identity and do not wait for lock.

measure_io_update_alignment(delay_start, delay_stop)[source]

Use the digital ramp generator to locate the alignment between IO_UPDATE and SYNC_CLK.

The ramp generator is set up to a linear frequency ramp (dFTW/t_SYNC_CLK=1) and started at a coarse RTIO time stamp plus delay_start and stopped at a coarse RTIO time stamp plus delay_stop.

Parameters
  • delay_start – Start IO_UPDATE delay in machine units.

  • delay_stop – Stop IO_UPDATE delay in machine units.

Returns

Odd/even SYNC_CLK cycle indicator.

pow_to_turns(pow_)[source]

Return the phase in turns corresponding to a given phase offset word.

power_down(bits=15)[source]

Power down DDS.

Parameters

bits – Power down bits, see datasheet

read16(addr)[source]

Read from 16 bit register.

Parameters

addr – Register address

read32(addr)[source]

Read from 32 bit register.

Parameters

addr – Register address

read64(addr)[source]

Read from 64 bit register.

Parameters

addr – Register address

Returns

64 bit integer register value

read_ram(data)[source]

Read data from RAM.

The profile to read from and the step, start, and end address need to be configured before and separately using set_profile_ram() and the parent CPLD set_profile.

Parameters

List(int32) (data) – List to be filled with data read from RAM.

set(frequency, phase=0.0, amplitude=1.0, phase_mode=-1, ref_time_mu=<Mock name='mock.int64()' id='140737300151312'>, profile=0)[source]

Set profile 0 data in SI units.

See also

set_mu()

Parameters
  • frequency – Frequency in Hz

  • phase – Phase tuning word in turns

  • amplitude – Amplitude in units of full scale

  • phase_mode – Phase mode constant

  • ref_time_mu – Fiducial time stamp in machine units

  • profile – Profile to affect

Returns

Resulting phase offset in turns

set_amplitude(amplitude)[source]

Set the value stored to the AD9910’s amplitude scale factor (ASF) register.

Parameters

amplitude – amplitude to be stored, in units of full scale.

set_asf(asf)[source]

Set the value stored to the AD9910’s amplitude scale factor (ASF) register.

Parameters

asf – Amplitude scale factor to be stored, range: 0 to 0x3fff.

set_att(att)[source]

Set digital step attenuator in SI units.

This method will write the attenuator settings of all four channels.

Parameters

att – Attenuation in dB.

set_att_mu(att)[source]

Set digital step attenuator in machine units.

This method will write the attenuator settings of all four channels.

Parameters

att – Attenuation setting, 8 bit digital.

set_cfr1(power_down=0, phase_autoclear=0, drg_load_lrr=0, drg_autoclear=0, internal_profile=0, ram_destination=0, ram_enable=0, manual_osk_external=0, osk_enable=0, select_auto_osk=0)[source]

Set CFR1. See the AD9910 datasheet for parameter meanings.

This method does not pulse IO_UPDATE.

Parameters
  • power_down – Power down bits.

  • phase_autoclear – Autoclear phase accumulator.

  • drg_load_lrr – Load digital ramp generator LRR.

  • drg_autoclear – Autoclear digital ramp generator.

  • internal_profile – Internal profile control.

  • ram_destination – RAM destination (RAM_DEST_FTW, RAM_DEST_POW, RAM_DEST_ASF, RAM_DEST_POWASF).

  • ram_enable – RAM mode enable.

  • manual_osk_external – Enable OSK pin control in manual OSK mode.

  • osk_enable – Enable OSK mode.

  • select_auto_osk – Select manual or automatic OSK mode.

set_frequency(frequency)[source]

Set the value stored to the AD9910’s frequency tuning word (FTW) register.

Parameters

frequency – frequency to be stored, in Hz.

set_ftw(ftw)[source]

Set the value stored to the AD9910’s frequency tuning word (FTW) register.

Parameters

ftw – Frequency tuning word to be stored, range: 0 to 0xffffffff.

set_mu(ftw, pow_=0, asf=16383, phase_mode=-1, ref_time_mu=<Mock name='mock.int64()' id='140737300151312'>, profile=0)[source]

Set profile 0 data in machine units.

This uses machine units (FTW, POW, ASF). The frequency tuning word width is 32, the phase offset word width is 16, and the amplitude scale factor width is 12.

After the SPI transfer, the shared IO update pin is pulsed to activate the data.

Parameters
  • ftw – Frequency tuning word: 32 bit.

  • pow – Phase tuning word: 16 bit unsigned.

  • asf – Amplitude scale factor: 14 bit unsigned.

  • phase_mode – If specified, overrides the default phase mode set by set_phase_mode() for this call.

  • ref_time_mu – Fiducial time used to compute absolute or tracking phase updates. In machine units as obtained by now_mu().

  • profile – Profile number to set (0-7, default: 0).

Returns

Resulting phase offset word after application of phase tracking offset. When using PHASE_MODE_CONTINUOUS in subsequent calls, use this value as the “current” phase.

set_phase(turns)[source]

Set the value stored to the AD9910’s phase offset word (POW) register.

Parameters

turns – phase offset to be stored, in turns.

set_phase_mode(phase_mode)[source]

Set the default phase mode.

for future calls to set() and set_mu(). Supported phase modes are:

  • PHASE_MODE_CONTINUOUS: the phase accumulator is unchanged when changing frequency or phase. The DDS phase is the sum of the phase accumulator and the phase offset. The only discontinuous changes in the DDS output phase come from changes to the phase offset. This mode is also knows as “relative phase mode”. \(\phi(t) = q(t^\prime) + p + (t - t^\prime) f\)

  • PHASE_MODE_ABSOLUTE: the phase accumulator is reset when changing frequency or phase. Thus, the phase of the DDS at the time of the change is equal to the specified phase offset. \(\phi(t) = p + (t - t^\prime) f\)

  • PHASE_MODE_TRACKING: when changing frequency or phase, the phase accumulator is cleared and the phase offset is offset by the value the phase accumulator would have if the DDS had been running at the specified frequency since a given fiducial time stamp. This is functionally equivalent to PHASE_MODE_ABSOLUTE. The only difference is the fiducial time stamp. This mode is also known as “coherent phase mode”. The default fiducial time stamp is 0. \(\phi(t) = p + (t - T) f\)

Where:

  • \(\phi(t)\): the DDS output phase

  • \(q(t) = \phi(t) - p\): DDS internal phase accumulator

  • \(p\): phase offset

  • \(f\): frequency

  • \(t^\prime\): time stamp of setting \(p\), \(f\)

  • \(T\): fiducial time stamp

  • \(t\): running time

Warning

This setting may become inconsistent when used as part of a DMA recording. When using DMA, it is recommended to specify the phase mode explicitly when calling set() or set_mu().

set_pow(pow_)[source]

Set the value stored to the AD9910’s phase offset word (POW) register.

Parameters

pow – Phase offset word to be stored, range: 0 to 0xffff.

set_profile_ram(start, end, step=1, profile=0, nodwell_high=0, zero_crossing=0, mode=1)[source]

Set the RAM profile settings.

Parameters
  • start – Profile start address in RAM.

  • end – Profile end address in RAM (last address).

  • step – Profile time step in units of t_DDS, typically 4 ns (default: 1).

  • profile – Profile index (0 to 7) (default: 0).

  • nodwell_high – No-dwell high bit (default: 0, see AD9910 documentation).

  • zero_crossing – Zero crossing bit (default: 0, see AD9910 documentation).

  • mode – Profile RAM mode (RAM_MODE_DIRECTSWITCH, RAM_MODE_RAMPUP, RAM_MODE_BIDIR_RAMP, RAM_MODE_CONT_BIDIR_RAMP, or RAM_MODE_CONT_RAMPUP, default: RAM_MODE_RAMPUP)

set_sync(in_delay, window)[source]

Set the relevant parameters in the multi device synchronization register. See the AD9910 datasheet for details. The SYNC clock generator preset value is set to zero, and the SYNC_OUT generator is disabled.

Parameters
  • in_delay – SYNC_IN delay tap (0-31) in steps of ~75ps

  • window – Symmetric SYNC_IN validation window (0-15) in steps of ~75ps for both hold and setup margin.

tune_io_update_delay()[source]

Find a stable IO_UPDATE delay alignment.

Scan through increasing IO_UPDATE delays until a delay is found that lets IO_UPDATE be registered in the next SYNC_CLK cycle. Return a IO_UPDATE delay that is as far away from that SYNC_CLK edge as possible.

This method assumes that the IO_UPDATE TTLOut device has one machine unit resolution (SERDES).

This method and tune_sync_delay() can be run in any order.

Returns

Stable IO_UPDATE delay to be passed to the constructor AD9910 via the device database.

tune_sync_delay(search_seed=15)[source]

Find a stable SYNC_IN delay.

This method first locates a valid SYNC_IN delay at zero validation window size (setup/hold margin) by scanning around search_seed. It then looks for similar valid delays at successively larger validation window sizes until none can be found. It then decreases the validation window a bit to provide some slack and stability and returns the optimal values.

This method and tune_io_update_delay() can be run in any order.

Parameters

search_seed – Start value for valid SYNC_IN delay search. Defaults to 15 (half range).

Returns

Tuple of optimal delay and window size.

turns_amplitude_to_ram(turns, amplitude, ram)[source]

Convert phase and amplitude values to RAM profile data.

To be used with RAM_DEST_POWASF.

Parameters
  • turns – List of phase values in turns.

  • amplitude – List of amplitude values in units of full scale.

  • ram – List to write RAM data into. Suitable for write_ram().

turns_to_pow(turns)[source]

Return the 16-bit phase offset word corresponding to the given phase in turns.

turns_to_ram(turns, ram)[source]

Convert phase values to RAM profile data.

To be used with RAM_DEST_POW.

Parameters
  • turns – List of phase values in turns.

  • ram – List to write RAM data into. Suitable for write_ram().

write16(addr, data)[source]

Write to 16 bit register.

Parameters
  • addr – Register address

  • data – Data to be written

write32(addr, data)[source]

Write to 32 bit register.

Parameters
  • addr – Register address

  • data – Data to be written

write64(addr, data_high, data_low)[source]

Write to 64 bit register.

Parameters
  • addr – Register address

  • data_high – High (MSB) 32 bits of the data

  • data_low – Low (LSB) 32 data bits

write_ram(data)[source]

Write data to RAM.

The profile to write to and the step, start, and end address need to be configured before and separately using set_profile_ram() and the parent CPLD set_profile.

Parameters

List(int32) (data) – Data to be written to RAM.

artiq.coredevice.ad9912 module

class artiq.coredevice.ad9912.AD9912(dmgr, chip_select, cpld_device, sw_device=None, pll_n=10)[source]

AD9912 DDS channel on Urukul

This class supports a single DDS channel and exposes the DDS, the digital step attenuator, and the RF switch.

Parameters
  • chip_select – Chip select configuration. On Urukul this is an encoded chip select and not “one-hot”.

  • cpld_device – Name of the Urukul CPLD this device is on.

  • sw_device – Name of the RF switch device. The RF switch is a TTLOut channel available as the sw attribute of this instance.

  • pll_n – DDS PLL multiplier. The DDS sample clock is f_ref/clk_div*pll_n where f_ref is the reference frequency and clk_div is the reference clock divider (both set in the parent Urukul CPLD instance).

cfg_sw(state)[source]

Set CPLD CFG RF switch state. The RF switch is controlled by the logical or of the CPLD configuration shift register RF switch bit and the SW TTL line (if used).

Parameters

state – CPLD CFG RF switch bit

frequency_to_ftw(frequency)[source]

Returns the 48-bit frequency tuning word corresponding to the given frequency.

ftw_to_frequency(ftw)[source]

Returns the frequency corresponding to the given frequency tuning word.

init()[source]

Initialize and configure the DDS.

Sets up SPI mode, confirms chip presence, powers down unused blocks, and configures the PLL. Does not wait for PLL lock. Uses the IO_UPDATE signal multiple times.

read(addr, length)[source]

Variable length read from a register. Up to 4 bytes.

Parameters
  • addr – Register address

  • length – Length in bytes (1-4)

Returns

Data read

set(frequency, phase=0.0)[source]

Set profile 0 data in SI units.

See also

set_mu()

Parameters
  • ftw – Frequency in Hz

  • pow – Phase tuning word in turns

set_att(att)[source]

Set digital step attenuator in SI units.

This method will write the attenuator settings of all four channels.

Parameters

att – Attenuation in dB. Higher values mean more attenuation.

set_att_mu(att)[source]

Set digital step attenuator in machine units.

This method will write the attenuator settings of all four channels.

Parameters

att – Attenuation setting, 8 bit digital.

set_mu(ftw, pow)[source]

Set profile 0 data in machine units.

After the SPI transfer, the shared IO update pin is pulsed to activate the data.

Parameters
  • ftw – Frequency tuning word: 48 bit unsigned.

  • pow – Phase tuning word: 16 bit unsigned.

turns_to_pow(phase)[source]

Returns the 16-bit phase offset word corresponding to the given phase.

write(addr, data, length)[source]

Variable length write to a register. Up to 4 bytes.

Parameters
  • addr – Register address

  • data – Data to be written: int32

  • length – Length in bytes (1-4)

artiq.coredevice.ad9914 module

Driver for the AD9914 DDS (with parallel bus) on RTIO.

class artiq.coredevice.ad9914.AD9914(dmgr, sysclk, bus_channel, channel, core_device=core)[source]

Driver for one AD9914 DDS channel.

The time cursor is not modified by any function in this class.

Output event replacement is not supported and issuing commands at the same time is an error.

Parameters
  • sysclk – DDS system frequency. The DDS system clock must be a phase-locked multiple of the RTIO clock.

  • bus_channel – RTIO channel number of the DDS bus.

  • channel – channel number (on the bus) of the DDS device to control.

amplitude_to_asf(amplitude)[source]

Returns 12-bit amplitude scale factor corresponding to given amplitude.

asf_to_amplitude(asf)[source]

Returns the amplitude corresponding to the given amplitude scale factor.

exit_x()[source]

Exits extended-resolution mode.

frequency_to_ftw(frequency)[source]

Returns the 32-bit frequency tuning word corresponding to the given frequency.

frequency_to_xftw(frequency)[source]

Returns the 63-bit frequency tuning word corresponding to the given frequency (extended resolution mode).

ftw_to_frequency(ftw)[source]

Returns the frequency corresponding to the given frequency tuning word.

init()[source]

Resets and initializes the DDS channel.

This needs to be done for each DDS channel before it can be used, and it is recommended to use the startup kernel for this purpose.

init_sync(sync_delay)[source]

Resets and initializes the DDS channel as well as configures the AD9914 DDS for synchronisation. The synchronisation procedure follows the steps outlined in the AN-1254 application note.

This needs to be done for each DDS channel before it can be used, and it is recommended to use the startup kernel for this.

This function cannot be used in a batch; the correct way of initializing multiple DDS channels is to call this function sequentially with a delay between the calls. 10ms provides a good timing margin.

Parameters

sync_delay – integer from 0 to 0x3f that sets the value of SYNC_OUT (bits 3-5) and SYNC_IN (bits 0-2) delay ADJ bits.

pow_to_turns(pow)[source]

Returns the phase in turns corresponding to the given phase offset word.

set(frequency, phase=0.0, phase_mode=- 1, amplitude=1.0)[source]

Like set_mu(), but uses Hz and turns.

set_mu(ftw, pow=0, phase_mode=- 1, asf=4095, ref_time_mu=- 1)[source]

Sets the DDS channel to the specified frequency and phase.

This uses machine units (FTW and POW). The frequency tuning word width is 32, the phase offset word width is 16, and the amplitude scale factor width is 12.

The “frequency update” pulse is sent to the DDS with a fixed latency with respect to the current position of the time cursor.

Parameters
  • ftw – frequency to generate.

  • pow – adds an offset to the phase.

  • phase_mode – if specified, overrides the default phase mode set by set_phase_mode() for this call.

  • ref_time_mu – reference time used to compute phase. Specifying this makes it easier to have a well-defined phase relationship between DDSes on the same bus that are updated at a similar time.

Returns

Resulting phase offset word after application of phase tracking offset. When using PHASE_MODE_CONTINUOUS in subsequent calls, use this value as the “current” phase.

set_phase_mode(phase_mode)[source]

Sets the phase mode of the DDS channel. Supported phase modes are:

  • PHASE_MODE_CONTINUOUS: the phase accumulator is unchanged when switching frequencies. The DDS phase is the sum of the phase accumulator and the phase offset. The only discrete jumps in the DDS output phase come from changes to the phase offset.

  • PHASE_MODE_ABSOLUTE: the phase accumulator is reset when switching frequencies. Thus, the phase of the DDS at the time of the frequency change is equal to the phase offset.

  • PHASE_MODE_TRACKING: when switching frequencies, the phase accumulator is set to the value it would have if the DDS had been running at the specified frequency since the start of the experiment.

Warning

This setting may become inconsistent when used as part of a DMA recording. When using DMA, it is recommended to specify the phase mode explicitly when calling set() or set_mu().

set_x(frequency, amplitude=1.0)[source]

Like set_x_mu(), but uses Hz and turns.

Note that the precision of float is less than the precision of the extended frequency tuning word.

set_x_mu(xftw, amplitude=4095)[source]

Set the DDS frequency and amplitude with an extended-resolution (63-bit) frequency tuning word.

Phase control is not implemented in this mode; the phase offset can assume any value.

After this function has been called, exit extended-resolution mode before calling functions that use standard-resolution mode.

turns_to_pow(turns)[source]

Returns the 16-bit phase offset word corresponding to the given phase in turns.

xftw_to_frequency(xftw)[source]

Returns the frequency corresponding to the given frequency tuning word (extended resolution mode).

artiq.coredevice.mirny module

RTIO driver for Mirny (4 channel GHz PLLs)

class artiq.coredevice.mirny.Mirny(dmgr, spi_device, core_device=core)[source]

Mirny PLL-based RF generator.

Parameters
  • spi_device – SPI bus device

  • core_device – Core device name (default: “core”)

init()[source]

Initialize Mirny by reading the status register and verifying compatible hardware and protocol revisions

read_reg(addr)[source]

Read a register

set_att_mu(channel, att)[source]

Set digital step attenuator in machine units.

Parameters

att – Attenuation setting, 8 bit digital.

write_ext(addr, length, data)[source]

Perform SPI write to a prefixed address

write_reg(addr, data)[source]

Write a register

artiq.coredevice.adf5355 module

RTIO driver for the Analog Devices ADF[45]35[56] family of GHz PLLs on Mirny-style prefixed SPI buses.

class artiq.coredevice.adf5355.ADF5355(dmgr, cpld_device, sw_device, channel, core=core)[source]

Analog Devices AD[45]35[56] family of GHz PLLs.

Parameters
  • cpld_device – Mirny CPLD device name

  • sw_device – Mirny RF switch device name

  • channel – Mirny RF channel index

  • core_device – Core device name (default: “core”)

set_att_mu(att)[source]

Set digital step attenuator in machine units.

Parameters

att – Attenuation setting, 8 bit digital.

artiq.coredevice.spline module

class artiq.coredevice.spline.Spline(width, time_width, channel, core_device, scale=1.0)[source]

Spline interpolating RTIO channel.

One knot of a polynomial basis spline (B-spline) \(u(t)\) is defined by the coefficients \(u_n\) up to order \(n = k\). If the coefficients are evaluated starting at time \(t_0\), the output \(u(t)\) for \(t > t_0, t_0\) is:

\[\begin{split}u(t) &= \sum_{n=0}^k \frac{u_n}{n!} (t - t_0)^n \\ &= u_0 + u_1 (t - t_0) + \frac{u_2}{2} (t - t_0)^2 + \dots\end{split}\]

This class contains multiple methods to convert spline knot data from SI to machine units and multiple methods that set the current spline coefficient data. None of these advance the timeline. The smooth() method is the only method that advances the timeline.

Parameters
  • width – Width in bits of the quantity that this spline controls

  • time_width – Width in bits of the time counter of this spline

  • channel – RTIO channel number

  • core_device – Core device that this spline is attached to

  • scale – Scale for conversion between machine units and physical units; to be given as the “full scale physical value”.

coeff_as_packed(coeff)[source]

Convert floating point spline coefficients into 32 bit integer packed data.

This is a host-only method that can be used to generate packed spline coefficient data to be frozen into kernels at compile time.

coeff_as_packed_mu(coeff64)[source]

Pack 64 bit integer machine units coefficients into 32 bit integer RTIO data list.

This is a host-only method that can be used to generate packed spline coefficient data to be frozen into kernels at compile time.

coeff_to_mu(coeff, coeff64)[source]

Convert a floating point list of coefficients into a 64 bit integer (preallocated).

Parameters
  • coeff – TList(TFloat) list of coefficients in physical units.

  • coeff64 – TList(TInt64) preallocated list of coefficients in machine units.

from_mu(value: artiq.compiler.types.TMono(‘int’, OrderedDict([‘width’, artiq.compiler.types.TValue(32)])))[source]

Convert 32 bit integer value from machine units to floating point physical units.

pack_coeff_mu(coeff, packed)[source]

Pack coefficients into RTIO data

Parameters
  • coeff – TList(TInt64) list of machine units spline coefficients. Lowest (zeroth) order first. The coefficient list is zero-extended by the RTIO gateware.

  • packed – TList(TInt32) list for packed RTIO data. Must be pre-allocated. Length in bits is n*width + (n - 1)*n//2*time_width

set(value: artiq.compiler.types.TMono(‘float’, OrderedDict()))[source]

Set spline value.

Parameters

value – Spline value relative to full-scale.

set_coeff(coeff)[source]

Set spline coefficients.

Missing coefficients (high order) are zero-extended byt the RTIO gateware.

If more coefficients are supplied than the gateware supports the extra coefficients are ignored.

Parameters

value – List of floating point spline coefficients, lowest order (constant) coefficient first. Units are the unit of this spline’s value times increasing powers of 1/s.

set_coeff_mu(value)[source]

Set spline raw values.

Parameters

value – Spline packed raw values.

set_mu(value: artiq.compiler.types.TMono(‘int’, OrderedDict([‘width’, artiq.compiler.types.TValue(32)])))[source]

Set spline value (machine units).

Parameters

value – Spline value in integer machine units.

smooth(start: artiq.compiler.types.TMono(‘float’, OrderedDict()), stop: artiq.compiler.types.TMono(‘float’, OrderedDict()), duration: artiq.compiler.types.TMono(‘float’, OrderedDict()), order: artiq.compiler.types.TMono(‘int’, OrderedDict([‘width’, artiq.compiler.types.TValue(32)])))[source]

Initiate an interpolated value change.

For zeroth order (step) interpolation, the step is at start + duration/2.

First order interpolation corresponds to a linear value ramp from start to stop over duration.

The third order interpolation is constrained to have zero first order derivative at both start and stop.

For first order and third order interpolation (linear and cubic) the interpolator needs to be stopped explicitly at the stop time (e.g. by setting spline coefficient data or starting a new smooth() interpolation).

This method advances the timeline by duration.

Parameters
  • start – Initial value of the change. In physical units.

  • stop – Final value of the change. In physical units.

  • duration – Duration of the interpolation. In physical units.

  • order – Order of the interpolation. Only 0, 1, and 3 are valid: step, linear, cubic.

to_mu(value: artiq.compiler.types.TMono(‘float’, OrderedDict()))[source]

Convert floating point value from physical units to 32 bit integer machine units.

to_mu64(value: artiq.compiler.types.TMono(‘float’, OrderedDict()))[source]

Convert floating point value from physical units to 64 bit integer machine units.

artiq.coredevice.sawg module

Driver for the Smart Arbitrary Waveform Generator (SAWG) on RTIO.

The SAWG is an “improved DDS” built in gateware and interfacing to high-speed DACs.

Output event replacement is supported except on the configuration channel.

class artiq.coredevice.sawg.Config(channel, core, cordic_gain=1.0)[source]

SAWG configuration.

Exposes the configurable quantities of a single SAWG channel.

Access to the configuration registers for a SAWG channel can not be concurrent. There must be at least _rtio_interval machine units of delay between accesses. Replacement is not supported and will be lead to an RTIOCollision as this is likely a programming error. All methods therefore advance the timeline by the duration of one configuration register transfer.

Parameters
  • channel – RTIO channel number of the channel.

  • core – Core device.

set_clr(clr0: artiq.compiler.types.TMono(‘int’, OrderedDict([‘width’, artiq.compiler.types.TValue(32)])), clr1: artiq.compiler.types.TMono(‘int’, OrderedDict([‘width’, artiq.compiler.types.TValue(32)])), clr2: artiq.compiler.types.TMono(‘int’, OrderedDict([‘width’, artiq.compiler.types.TValue(32)])))[source]

Set the accumulator clear mode for the three phase accumulators.

When the clr bit for a given DDS/DUC phase accumulator is set, that phase accumulator will be cleared with every phase offset RTIO command and the output phase of the DDS/DUC will be exactly the phase RTIO value (“absolute phase update mode”).

\[q^\prime(t) = p^\prime + (t - t^\prime) f^\prime\]

In turn, when the bit is cleared, the phase RTIO channels determine a phase offset to the current (carrier-) value of the DDS/DUC phase accumulator. This “relative phase update mode” is sometimes also called “continuous phase mode”.

\[q^\prime(t) = q(t^\prime) + (p^\prime - p) + (t - t^\prime) f^\prime\]

Where:

  • \(q\), \(q^\prime\): old/new phase accumulator

  • \(p\), \(p^\prime\): old/new phase offset

  • \(f^\prime\): new frequency

  • \(t^\prime\): timestamp of setting new \(p\), \(f\)

  • \(t\): running time

Parameters
  • clr0 – Auto-clear phase accumulator of the phase0/ frequency0 DUC. Default: True

  • clr1 – Auto-clear phase accumulator of the phase1/ frequency1 DDS. Default: True

  • clr2 – Auto-clear phase accumulator of the phase2/ frequency2 DDS. Default: True

set_div(div: artiq.compiler.types.TMono(‘int’, OrderedDict([‘width’, artiq.compiler.types.TValue(32)])), n: artiq.compiler.types.TMono(‘int’, OrderedDict([‘width’, artiq.compiler.types.TValue(32)])) = 0)[source]

Set the spline evolution divider and current counter value.

The divider and the spline evolution are synchronized across all spline channels within a SAWG channel. The DDS/DUC phase accumulators always evolves at full speed.

Note

The spline evolution divider has not been tested extensively and is currently considered a technological preview only.

Parameters
  • div – Spline evolution divider, such that t_sawg_spline/t_rtio_coarse = div + 1. Default: 0.

  • n – Current value of the counter. Default: 0.

set_duc_max(limit: artiq.compiler.types.TMono(‘float’, OrderedDict()))[source]

Set the digital up-converter (DUC) I and Q data summing junctions upper limit.

Each of the three summing junctions has a saturating adder with configurable upper and lower limits. The three summing junctions are:

  • At the in-phase input to the phase0/frequency0 fast DUC, after the anti-aliasing FIR filter.

  • At the quadrature input to the phase0/frequency0 fast DUC, after the anti-aliasing FIR filter. The in-phase and quadrature data paths both use the same limits.

  • Before the DAC, where the following three data streams are added together:

    • the output of the offset spline,

    • (optionally, depending on i_enable) the in-phase output of the phase0/frequency0 fast DUC, and

    • (optionally, depending on q_enable) the quadrature output of the phase0/frequency0 fast DUC of the buddy channel.

Refer to the documentation of SAWG for a mathematical description of the summing junctions.

Parameters

limit – Limit value [-1, 1]. The output of the limiter will never exceed this limit. The default limits are the full range [-1, 1].

See also

set_duc_max_mu(limit: artiq.compiler.types.TMono(‘int’, OrderedDict([‘width’, artiq.compiler.types.TValue(32)])))[source]

Set the digital up-converter (DUC) I and Q data summing junctions upper limit. In machine units.

The default limits are chosen to reach maximum and minimum DAC output amplitude.

For a description of the limiter functions in normalized units see:

See also

set_duc_max()

set_duc_min(limit: artiq.compiler.types.TMono(‘float’, OrderedDict()))[source]

See also

set_duc_max()

set_duc_min_mu(limit: artiq.compiler.types.TMono(‘int’, OrderedDict([‘width’, artiq.compiler.types.TValue(32)])))[source]

See also

set_duc_max_mu()

set_iq_en(i_enable: artiq.compiler.types.TMono(‘int’, OrderedDict([‘width’, artiq.compiler.types.TValue(32)])), q_enable: artiq.compiler.types.TMono(‘int’, OrderedDict([‘width’, artiq.compiler.types.TValue(32)])))[source]

Enable I/Q data on this DAC channel.

Every pair of SAWG channels forms a buddy pair. The iq_en configuration controls which DDS data is emitted to the DACs.

Refer to the documentation of SAWG for a mathematical description of i_enable and q_enable.

Note

Quadrature data from the buddy channel is currently a technological preview only. The data is ignored in the SAWG gateware and not added to the DAC output. This is equivalent to the q_enable switch always being 0.

Parameters
  • i_enable – Controls adding the in-phase DUC-DDS data of this SAWG channel to this DAC channel. Default: 1.

  • q_enable – controls adding the quadrature DUC-DDS data of this SAWG’s buddy channel to this DAC channel. Default: 0.

set_out_max(limit: artiq.compiler.types.TMono(‘float’, OrderedDict()))[source]

See also

set_duc_max()

set_out_max_mu(limit: artiq.compiler.types.TMono(‘int’, OrderedDict([‘width’, artiq.compiler.types.TValue(32)])))[source]

See also

set_duc_max_mu()

set_out_min(limit: artiq.compiler.types.TMono(‘float’, OrderedDict()))[source]

See also

set_duc_max()

set_out_min_mu(limit: artiq.compiler.types.TMono(‘int’, OrderedDict([‘width’, artiq.compiler.types.TValue(32)])))[source]

See also

set_duc_max_mu()

class artiq.coredevice.sawg.SAWG(dmgr, channel_base, parallelism, core_device=core)[source]

Smart arbitrary waveform generator channel. The channel is parametrized as:

oscillators = exp(2j*pi*(frequency0*t + phase0))*(
    amplitude1*exp(2j*pi*(frequency1*t + phase1)) +
    amplitude2*exp(2j*pi*(frequency2*t + phase2)))

output = (offset +
    i_enable*Re(oscillators) +
    q_enable*Im(buddy_oscillators))

This parametrization can be viewed as two complex (quadrature) oscillators (frequency1/phase1 and frequency2/phase2) that are executing and sampling at the coarse RTIO frequency. They can represent frequencies within the first Nyquist zone from -f_rtio_coarse/2 to f_rtio_coarse/2.

Note

The coarse RTIO frequency f_rtio_coarse is the inverse of ref_period*multiplier. Both are arguments of the Core device, specified in the device database device_db.py.

The sum of their outputs is then interpolated by a factor of parallelism (2, 4, 8 depending on the bitstream) using a finite-impulse-response (FIR) anti-aliasing filter (more accurately a half-band filter).

The filter is followed by a configurable saturating limiter.

After the limiter, the data is shifted in frequency using a complex digital up-converter (DUC, frequency0/phase0) running at parallelism times the coarse RTIO frequency. The first Nyquist zone of the DUC extends from -f_rtio_coarse*parallelism/2 to f_rtio_coarse*parallelism/2. Other Nyquist zones are usable depending on the interpolation/modulation options configured in the DAC.

The real/in-phase data after digital up-conversion can be offset using another spline interpolator offset.

The i_enable/q_enable switches enable emission of quadrature signals for later analog quadrature mixing distinguishing upper and lower sidebands and thus doubling the bandwidth. They can also be used to emit four-tone signals.

Note

Quadrature data from the buddy channel is currently ignored in the SAWG gateware and not added to the DAC output. This is equivalent to the q_enable switch always being 0.

The configuration channel and the nine artiq.coredevice.spline.Spline interpolators are accessible as attributes:

  • config: Config

  • offset, amplitude1, amplitude2: in units of full scale

  • phase0, phase1, phase2: in units of turns

  • frequency0, frequency1, frequency2: in units of Hz

Note

The latencies (pipeline depths) of the nine data channels (i.e. all except config) are matched. Equivalent channels (e.g. phase1 and phase2) are exactly matched. Channels of different type or functionality (e.g. offset vs amplitude1, DDS vs DUC, phase0 vs phase1) are only matched to within one coarse RTIO cycle.

Parameters
  • channel_base – RTIO channel number of the first channel (amplitude). The configuration channel and frequency/phase/amplitude channels are then assumed to be successive channels.

  • parallelism – Number of output samples per coarse RTIO clock cycle.

  • core_device – Name of the core device that this SAWG is on.

reset()[source]

Re-establish initial conditions.

This clears all spline interpolators, accumulators and configuration settings.

This method advances the timeline by the time required to perform all 7 writes to the configuration channel, plus 9 coarse RTIO cycles.

artiq.coredevice.phaser module

class artiq.coredevice.phaser.Phaser(dmgr, channel_base, miso_delay=1, tune_fifo_offset=True, clk_sel=0, sync_dly=0, dac=None, trf0=None, trf1=None, core_device=core)[source]

Phaser 4-channel, 16-bit, 1 GS/s DAC coredevice driver.

Phaser contains a 4 channel, 1 GS/s DAC chip with integrated upconversion, quadrature modulation compensation and interpolation features.

The coredevice produces 2 IQ (in-phase and quadrature) data streams with 25 MS/s and 14 bit per quadrature. Each data stream supports 5 independent numerically controlled IQ oscillators (NCOs, DDSs with 32 bit frequency, 16 bit phase, 15 bit amplitude, and phase accumulator clear functionality) added together. See PhaserChannel and PhaserOscillator.

Together with a data clock, framing marker, a checksum and metadata for register access the streams are sent in groups of 8 samples over 1.5 Gb/s FastLink via a single EEM connector from coredevice to Phaser.

On Phaser in the FPGA the data streams are buffered and interpolated from 25 MS/s to 500 MS/s 16 bit followed by a 500 MS/s digital upconverter with adjustable frequency and phase. The interpolation passband is 20 MHz wide, passband ripple is less than 1e-3 amplitude, stopband attenuation is better than 75 dB at offsets > 15 MHz and better than 90 dB at offsets > 30 MHz.

The four 16 bit 500 MS/s DAC data streams are sent via a 32 bit parallel LVDS bus operating at 1 Gb/s per pin pair and processed in the DAC (Texas Instruments DAC34H84). On the DAC 2x interpolation, sinx/x compensation, quadrature modulator compensation, fine and coarse mixing as well as group delay capabilities are available.

The latency/group delay from the RTIO events setting PhaserOscillator or PhaserChannel DUC parameters all they way to the DAC outputs is deterministic. This enables deterministic absolute phase with respect to other RTIO input and output events.

The four analog DAC outputs are passed through anti-aliasing filters.

In the baseband variant, the even/in-phase DAC channels feed 31.5 dB range attenuators and are available on the front panel. The odd outputs are available at MMCX connectors on board.

In the upconverter variant, each IQ output pair feeds one quadrature upconverter (Texas Instruments TRF372017) with integrated PLL/VCO. This digitally configured analog quadrature upconverter supports offset tuning for carrier and sideband suppression. The output from the upconverter passes through the 31.5 dB range step attenuator and is available at the front panel.

The DAC, the analog quadrature upconverters and the attenuators are configured through a shared SPI bus that is accessed and controlled via FPGA registers.

Note

Various register settings of the DAC and the quadrature upconverters are available to be modified through the dac, trf0, trf1 dictionaries. These can be set through the device database (device_db.py). The settings are frozen during instantiation of the class and applied during init(). See the DAC34H84 and TRF372017 source for details.

Note

To establish deterministic latency between RTIO time base and DAC output, the DAC FIFO read pointer value (fifo_offset) must be fixed. If tune_fifo_offset=True (the default) a value with maximum margin is determined automatically by dac_tune_fifo_offset each time init() is called. This value should be used for the fifo_offset key of the dac settings of Phaser in device_db.py and automatic tuning should be disabled by tune_fifo_offset=False.

Parameters
  • channel – Base RTIO channel number

  • core_device – Core device name (default: “core”)

  • miso_delay – Fastlink MISO signal delay to account for cable and buffer round trip. Tuning this might be automated later.

  • tune_fifo_offset – Tune the DAC FIFO read pointer offset (default=True)

  • clk_sel – Select the external SMA clock input (1 or 0)

  • sync_dly – SYNC delay with respect to ISTR.

  • dac – DAC34H84 DAC settings as a dictionary.

  • trf0 – Channel 0 TRF372017 quadrature upconverter settings as a dictionary.

  • trf1 – Channel 1 TRF372017 quadrature upconverter settings as a dictionary.

Attributes:

  • channel: List of two PhaserChannel

    To access oscillators, digital upconverters, PLL/VCO analog quadrature upconverters and attenuators.

clear_dac_alarms()[source]

Clear DAC alarm flags.

dac_iotest(pattern)[source]

Performs a DAC IO test according to the datasheet.

Parameters

patterm – List of four int32 containing the pattern

Returns

Bit error mask (16 bits)

dac_read(addr, div=34)[source]

Read from a DAC register.

Parameters
  • addr – Register address to read from

  • div – SPI clock divider. Needs to be at least 250 (1 µs SPI clock) to read the temperature register.

dac_tune_fifo_offset()[source]

Scan through fifo_offset and configure midpoint setting.

Returns

Optimal fifo_offset setting with maximum margin to write pointer.

dac_write(addr, data)[source]

Write 16 bit to a DAC register.

Parameters
  • addr – Register address

  • data – Register data to write

duc_stb()[source]

Strobe the DUC configuration register update.

Transfer staging to active registers. This affects both DUC channels.

get_crc_err()[source]

Get the frame CRC error counter.

Returns

The number of frames with CRC mismatches sind the reset of the device. Overflows at 256.

get_dac_alarms()[source]

Read the DAC alarm flags.

Returns

DAC alarm flags (see datasheet for bit meaning)

get_dac_temperature()[source]

Read the DAC die temperature.

Returns

DAC temperature in degree Celsius

get_sta()[source]

Get the status register value.

Bit flags are:

  • PHASER_STA_DAC_ALARM: DAC alarm pin

  • PHASER_STA_TRF0_LD: Quadrature upconverter 0 lock detect

  • PHASER_STA_TRF1_LD: Quadrature upconverter 1 lock detect

  • PHASER_STA_TERM0: ADC channel 0 termination indicator

  • PHASER_STA_TERM1: ADC channel 1 termination indicator

  • PHASER_STA_SPI_IDLE: SPI machine is idle and data registers

    can be read/written

Returns

Status register

init(debug=False)[source]

Initialize the board.

Verifies board and chip presence, resets components, performs communication and configuration tests and establishes initial conditions.

read32(addr)[source]

Read 32 bit from a sequence of FPGA registers.

read8(addr)[source]

Read from FPGA register.

Parameters

addr – Address to read from (7 bit)

Returns

Data read (8 bit)

set_cfg(clk_sel=0, dac_resetb=1, dac_sleep=0, dac_txena=1, trf0_ps=0, trf1_ps=0, att0_rstn=1, att1_rstn=1)[source]

Set the configuration register.

Each flag is a single bit (0 or 1).

Parameters
  • clk_sel – Select the external SMA clock input

  • dac_resetb – Active low DAC reset pin

  • dac_sleep – DAC sleep pin

  • dac_txena – Enable DAC transmission pin

  • trf0_ps – Quadrature upconverter 0 power save

  • trf1_ps – Quadrature upconverter 1 power save

  • att0_rstn – Active low attenuator 0 reset

  • att1_rstn – Active low attenuator 1 reset

set_fan(duty)[source]

Set the fan duty cycle.

Parameters

duty – Duty cycle (0. to 1.)

set_fan_mu(pwm)[source]

Set the fan duty cycle.

Parameters

pwm – Duty cycle in machine units (8 bit)

set_leds(leds)[source]

Set the front panel LEDs.

Parameters

leds – LED settings (6 bit)

set_sync_dly(dly)[source]

Set SYNC delay.

Parameters

dly – DAC SYNC delay setting (0 to 7)

spi_cfg(select, div, end, clk_phase=0, clk_polarity=0, half_duplex=0, lsb_first=0, offline=0, length=8)[source]

Set the SPI machine configuration

Parameters
  • select – Chip selects to assert (DAC, TRF0, TRF1, ATT0, ATT1)

  • div – SPI clock divider relative to 250 MHz fabric clock

  • end – Whether to end the SPI transaction and deassert chip select

  • clk_phase – SPI clock phase (sample on first or second edge)

  • clk_polarity – SPI clock polarity (idle low or high)

  • half_duplex – Read MISO data from MOSI wire

  • lsb_first – Transfer the least significant bit first

  • offline – Put the SPI interfaces offline and don’t drive voltages

  • length – SPI transfer length (1 to 8 bits)

spi_read()[source]

Read from the SPI input data register.

spi_write(data)[source]

Write 8 bits into the SPI data register and start/continue the transaction.

write32(addr, data: artiq.compiler.types.TMono(‘int’, OrderedDict([‘width’, artiq.compiler.types.TValue(32)])))[source]

Write 32 bit to a sequence of FPGA registers.

write8(addr, data)[source]

Write data to FPGA register.

Parameters
  • addr – Address to write to (7 bit)

  • data – Data to write (8 bit)

class artiq.coredevice.phaser.PhaserChannel(phaser, index, trf)[source]

Phaser channel IQ pair.

A Phaser channel contains:

  • multiple oscillators (in the coredevice phy),

  • an interpolation chain and digital upconverter (DUC) on Phaser,

  • several channel-specific settings in the DAC:
    • quadrature modulation compensation QMC

    • numerically controlled oscillator NCO or coarse mixer CMIX,

  • the analog quadrature upconverter (in the Phaser-Upconverter hardware

    variant), and

  • a digitally controlled step attenuator.

Attributes:

Note

The amplitude sum of the oscillators must be less than one to avoid clipping or overflow. If any of the DDS or DUC frequencies are non-zero, it is not sufficient to ensure that the sum in each quadrature is within range.

Note

The interpolation filter on Phaser has an intrinsic sinc-like overshoot in its step response. That overshoot is an direct consequence of its near-brick-wall frequency response. For large and wide-band changes in oscillator parameters, the overshoot can lead to clipping or overflow after the interpolation. Either band-limit any changes in the oscillator parameters or back off the amplitude sufficiently.

get_att_mu()[source]

Read current attenuation.

The current attenuation value is read without side effects.

Returns

Current attenuation in machine units

get_dac_data()[source]

Get a sample of the current DAC data.

The data is split accross multiple registers and thus the data is only valid if constant.

Returns

DAC data as 32 bit IQ. I/DACA/DACC in the 16 LSB, Q/DACB/DACD in the 16 MSB

set_att(att)[source]

Set channel attenuation in SI units.

Parameters

att – Attenuation in dB

set_att_mu(data)[source]

Set channel attenuation.

Parameters

data – Attenuator data in machine units (8 bit)

set_dac_test(data: artiq.compiler.types.TMono(‘int’, OrderedDict([‘width’, artiq.compiler.types.TValue(32)])))[source]

Set the DAC test data.

Parameters

data – 32 bit IQ test data, I/DACA/DACC in the 16 LSB, Q/DACB/DACD in the 16 MSB

set_duc_cfg(clr=0, clr_once=0, select=0)[source]

Set the digital upconverter (DUC) and interpolator configuration.

Parameters
  • clr – Keep the phase accumulator cleared (persistent)

  • clr_once – Clear the phase accumulator for one cycle

  • select – Select the data to send to the DAC (0: DUC data, 1: test data, other values: reserved)

set_duc_frequency(frequency)[source]

Set the DUC frequency in SI units.

Parameters

frequency – DUC frequency in Hz (passband from -200 MHz to 200 MHz, wrapping around at +- 250 MHz)

set_duc_frequency_mu(ftw)[source]

Set the DUC frequency.

Parameters

ftw – DUC frequency tuning word (32 bit)

set_duc_phase(phase)[source]

Set the DUC phase in SI units.

Parameters

phase – DUC phase in turns

set_duc_phase_mu(pow)[source]

Set the DUC phase offset.

Parameters

pow – DUC phase offset word (16 bit)

set_nco_frequency(frequency)[source]

Set the NCO frequency in SI units.

Parameters

frequency – NCO frequency in Hz (passband from -400 MHz to 400 MHz, wrapping around at +- 500 MHz)

set_nco_frequency_mu(ftw)[source]

Set the NCO frequency.

Parameters

ftw – NCO frequency tuning word (32 bit)

set_nco_phase(phase)[source]

Set the NCO phase in SI units.

Parameters

phase – NCO phase in turns

set_nco_phase_mu(pow)[source]

Set the NCO phase offset.

Parameters

pow – NCO phase offset word (16 bit)

trf_read(addr, cnt_mux_sel=0)[source]

Quadrature upconverter register read.

Parameters
  • addr – Register address to read (0 to 7)

  • cnt_mux_sel – Report VCO counter min or max frequency

Returns

Register data (32 bit)

trf_write(data, readback=False)[source]

Write 32 bits to quadrature upconverter register.

Parameters
  • data – Register data (32 bit) containing encoded address

  • readback – Whether to return the read back MISO data

class artiq.coredevice.phaser.PhaserOscillator(channel, index)[source]

Phaser IQ channel oscillator (NCO/DDS).

Note

Latencies between oscillators within a channel and between oscillator paramters (amplitude and phase/frequency) are deterministic (with respect to the 25 MS/s sample clock) but not matched.

set_amplitude_phase(amplitude, phase=0.0, clr=0)[source]

Set Phaser MultiDDS amplitude and phase.

Parameters
  • amplitude – Amplitude in units of full scale

  • phase – Phase in turns

  • clr – Clear the phase accumulator (persistent)

set_amplitude_phase_mu(asf=32767, pow=0, clr=0)[source]

Set Phaser MultiDDS amplitude, phase offset and accumulator clear.

Parameters
  • asf – Amplitude (15 bit)

  • pow – Phase offset word (16 bit)

  • clr – Clear the phase accumulator (persistent)

set_frequency(frequency)[source]

Set Phaser MultiDDS frequency.

Parameters

frequency – Frequency in Hz (passband from -10 MHz to 10 MHz, wrapping around at +- 12.5 MHz)

set_frequency_mu(ftw)[source]

Set Phaser MultiDDS frequency tuning word.

Parameters

ftw – Frequency tuning word (32 bit)

DAC/ADC drivers

artiq.coredevice.ad53xx module

“RTIO driver for the Analog Devices AD53[67][0123] family of multi-channel Digital to Analog Converters.

Output event replacement is not supported and issuing commands at the same time is an error.

class artiq.coredevice.ad53xx.AD53xx(dmgr, spi_device, ldac_device=None, clr_device=None, chip_select=1, div_write=4, div_read=16, vref=5.0, offset_dacs=8192, core=core)[source]

Analog devices AD53[67][0123] family of multi-channel Digital to Analog Converters.

Parameters
  • spi_device – SPI bus device name

  • ldac_device – LDAC RTIO TTLOut channel name (optional)

  • clr_device – CLR RTIO TTLOut channel name (optional)

  • chip_select – Value to drive on SPI chip select lines during transactions (default: 1)

  • div_write – SPI clock divider for write operations (default: 4, 50MHz max SPI clock with {t_high, t_low} >=8ns)

  • div_read – SPI clock divider for read operations (default: 8, not optimized for speed, but cf data sheet t22: 25ns min SCLK edge to SDO valid)

  • vref – DAC reference voltage (default: 5.)

  • offset_dacs – Initial register value for the two offset DACs, device dependent and must be set correctly for correct voltage to mu conversions. Knowledge of his state is not transferred between experiments. (default: 8192)

  • core_device – Core device name (default: “core”)

calibrate(channel, vzs, vfs)[source]

Two-point calibration of a DAC channel.

Programs the offset and gain register to trim out DAC errors. Does not take effect until LDAC is pulsed (see :meth load:).

Calibration consists of measuring the DAC output voltage for a channel with the DAC set to zero-scale (0x0000) and full-scale (0xffff).

Note that only negative offsets and full-scale errors (DAC gain too high) can be calibrated in this fashion.

Parameters

channel – The number of the calibrated channel

Params vzs

Measured voltage with the DAC set to zero-scale (0x0000)

Params vfs

Measured voltage with the DAC set to full-scale (0xffff)

init(blind=False)[source]

Configures the SPI bus, drives LDAC and CLR high, programmes the offset DACs, and enables overtemperature shutdown.

This method must be called before any other method at start-up or if the SPI bus has been accessed by another device.

Parameters

blind – If True, do not attempt to read back control register or check for overtemperature.

load()[source]

Pulse the LDAC line.

Note that there is a <= 1.5us “BUSY” period (t10) after writing to a DAC input/gain/offset register. All DAC registers may be programmed normally during the busy period, however LDACs during the busy period cause the DAC output to change after the BUSY period has completed, instead of the usual immediate update on LDAC behaviour.

This method advances the timeline by two RTIO clock periods.

read_reg(channel=0, op=1024)[source]

Read a DAC register.

This method advances the timeline by the duration of two SPI transfers plus two RTIO coarse cycles plus 270 ns and consumes all slack.

Parameters
  • channel – Channel number to read from (default: 0)

  • op – Operation to perform, one of AD53XX_READ_X1A, AD53XX_READ_X1B, AD53XX_READ_OFFSET, AD53XX_READ_GAIN etc. (default: AD53XX_READ_X1A).

Returns

The 16 bit register value

set_dac(voltages, channels=[0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39])[source]

Program multiple DAC channels and pulse LDAC to update the DAC outputs.

This method does not advance the timeline; write events are scheduled in the past. The DACs will synchronously start changing their output levels now.

If no LDAC device was defined, the LDAC pulse is skipped.

Parameters
  • voltages – list of voltages to program the DAC channels to

  • channels – list of DAC channels to program. If not specified, we program the DAC channels sequentially, starting at 0.

set_dac_mu(values, channels=[0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39])[source]

Program multiple DAC channels and pulse LDAC to update the DAC outputs.

This method does not advance the timeline; write events are scheduled in the past. The DACs will synchronously start changing their output levels now.

If no LDAC device was defined, the LDAC pulse is skipped.

See :meth load:.

Parameters
  • values – list of DAC values to program

  • channels – list of DAC channels to program. If not specified, we program the DAC channels sequentially, starting at 0.

voltage_to_mu(voltage)[source]

Returns the 16-bit DAC register value required to produce a given output voltage, assuming offset and gain errors have been trimmed out.

The 16-bit register value may also be used with 14-bit DACs. The additional bits are disregarded by 14-bit DACs.

Parameters

voltage – Voltage in SI units. Valid voltages are: [-2*vref, + 2*vref - 1 LSB] + voltage offset.

Returns

The 16-bit DAC register value

write_dac(channel, voltage)[source]

Program the DAC output voltage for a channel.

The DAC output is not updated until LDAC is pulsed (see :meth load:). This method advances the timeline by the duration of one SPI transfer.

write_dac_mu(channel, value)[source]

Program the DAC input register for a channel.

The DAC output is not updated until LDAC is pulsed (see :meth load:). This method advances the timeline by the duration of one SPI transfer.

write_gain_mu(channel, gain=65535)[source]

Program the gain register for a DAC channel.

The DAC output is not updated until LDAC is pulsed (see :meth load:). This method advances the timeline by the duration of one SPI transfer.

Parameters

gain – 16-bit gain register value (default: 0xffff)

write_offset(channel, voltage)[source]

Program the DAC offset voltage for a channel.

An offset of +V can be used to trim out a DAC offset error of -V. The DAC output is not updated until LDAC is pulsed (see :meth load:). This method advances the timeline by the duration of one SPI transfer.

Parameters

voltage – the offset voltage

write_offset_dacs_mu(value)[source]

Program the OFS0 and OFS1 offset DAC registers.

Writes to the offset DACs take effect immediately without requiring a LDAC. This method advances the timeline by the duration of two SPI transfers.

Parameters

value – Value to set both offset DAC registers to

write_offset_mu(channel, offset=32768)[source]

Program the offset register for a DAC channel.

The DAC output is not updated until LDAC is pulsed (see :meth load:). This method advances the timeline by the duration of one SPI transfer.

Parameters

offset – 16-bit offset register value (default: 0x8000)

artiq.coredevice.ad53xx.ad53xx_cmd_read_ch(channel, op)[source]

Returns the word that must be written to the DAC to read a given DAC channel register.

Parameters
  • channel – DAC channel to read (8 bits)

  • op – The channel register to read, one of AD53XX_READ_X1A, AD53XX_READ_X1B, AD53XX_READ_OFFSET, AD53XX_READ_GAIN etc.

Returns

The 24-bit word to be written to the DAC to initiate read

artiq.coredevice.ad53xx.ad53xx_cmd_write_ch(channel, value, op)[source]

Returns the word that must be written to the DAC to set a DAC channel register to a given value.

Parameters
  • channel – DAC channel to write to (8 bits)

  • value – 16-bit value to write to the register

  • op – The channel register to write to, one of AD53XX_CMD_DATA, AD53XX_CMD_OFFSET or AD53XX_CMD_GAIN.

Returns

The 24-bit word to be written to the DAC

artiq.coredevice.ad53xx.voltage_to_mu(voltage, offset_dacs=8192, vref=5.0)[source]

Returns the 16-bit DAC register value required to produce a given output voltage, assuming offset and gain errors have been trimmed out.

The 16-bit register value may also be used with 14-bit DACs. The additional bits are disregarded by 14-bit DACs.

Also used to return offset register value required to produce a given voltage when the DAC register is set to mid-scale. An offset of V can be used to trim out a DAC offset error of -V.

Parameters
  • voltage – Voltage in SI units. Valid voltages are: [-2*vref, + 2*vref - 1 LSB] + voltage offset.

  • offset_dacs – Register value for the two offset DACs (default: 0x2000)

  • vref – DAC reference voltage (default: 5.)

Returns

The 16-bit DAC register value

artiq.coredevice.zotino module

RTIO driver for the Zotino 32-channel, 16-bit 1MSPS DAC.

Output event replacement is not supported and issuing commands at the same time is an error.

class artiq.coredevice.zotino.Zotino(dmgr, spi_device, ldac_device=None, clr_device=None, div_write=4, div_read=8, vref=5.0, core=core)[source]

Zotino 32-channel, 16-bit 1MSPS DAC.

Controls the AD5372 DAC and the 8 user LEDs via a shared SPI interface.

Parameters
  • spi_device – SPI bus device name

  • ldac_device – LDAC RTIO TTLOut channel name.

  • clr_device – CLR RTIO TTLOut channel name.

  • div_write – SPI clock divider for write operations (default: 4, 50MHz max SPI clock)

  • div_read – SPI clock divider for read operations (default: 8, not optimized for speed, but cf data sheet t22: 25ns min SCLK edge to SDO valid)

  • vref – DAC reference voltage (default: 5.)

  • core_device – Core device name (default: “core”)

set_leds(leds)[source]

Sets the states of the 8 user LEDs.

Parameters

leds – 8-bit word with LED state

artiq.coredevice.sampler module

class artiq.coredevice.sampler.Sampler(dmgr, spi_adc_device, spi_pgia_device, cnv_device, div=8, gains=0, core_device=core)[source]

Sampler ADC.

Controls the LTC2320-16 8 channel 16 bit ADC with SPI interface and the switchable gain instrumentation amplifiers.

Parameters
  • spi_adc_device – ADC SPI bus device name

  • spi_pgia_device – PGIA SPI bus device name

  • cnv_device – CNV RTIO TTLOut channel name

  • div – SPI clock divider (default: 8)

  • gains – Initial value for PGIA gains shift register (default: 0x0000). Knowledge of this state is not transferred between experiments.

  • core_device – Core device name

get_gains_mu()[source]

Read the PGIA gain settings of all channels.

Returns

The PGIA gain settings in machine units.

init()[source]

Initialize the device.

Sets up SPI channels.

sample(data)[source]

Acquire a set of samples.

See also

sample_mu()

Parameters

data – List of floating point data samples to fill.

sample_mu(data)[source]

Acquire a set of samples.

Perform a conversion and transfer the samples.

This assumes that the input FIFO of the ADC SPI RTIO channel is deep enough to buffer the samples (half the length of data deep). If it is not, there will be RTIO input overflows.

Parameters

data – List of data samples to fill. Must have even length. Samples are always read from the last channel (channel 7) down. The data list will always be filled with the last item holding to the sample from channel 7.

set_gain_mu(channel, gain)[source]

Set instrumentation amplifier gain of a channel.

The four gain settings (0, 1, 2, 3) corresponds to gains of (1, 10, 100, 1000) respectively.

Parameters
  • channel – Channel index

  • gain – Gain setting

artiq.coredevice.sampler.adc_mu_to_volt(data, gain=0)[source]

Convert ADC data in machine units to Volts.

Parameters
  • data – 16 bit signed ADC word

  • gain – PGIA gain setting (0: 1, …, 3: 1000)

Returns

Voltage in Volts

artiq.coredevice.novogorny module

class artiq.coredevice.novogorny.Novogorny(dmgr, spi_device, cnv_device, div=8, gains=0, core_device=core)[source]

Novogorny ADC.

Controls the LTC2335-16 8 channel ADC with SPI interface and the switchable gain instrumentation amplifiers using a shift register.

Parameters
  • spi_device – SPI bus device name

  • cnv_device – CNV RTIO TTLOut channel name

  • div – SPI clock divider (default: 8)

  • gains – Initial value for PGIA gains shift register (default: 0x0000). Knowledge of this state is not transferred between experiments.

  • core_device – Core device name

burst_mu(data, dt_mu, ctrl=0)[source]

Acquire a burst of samples.

If the burst is too long and the sample rate too high, there will be RTIO input overflows.

High sample rates lead to gain errors since the impedance between the instrumentation amplifier and the ADC is high.

Parameters
  • data – List of data values to write result packets into. In machine units.

  • dt – Sample interval in machine units.

  • ctrl – ADC control word to write during each result packet transfer.

configure(data)[source]

Set up the ADC sequencer.

Parameters

data – List of 8 bit control words to write into the sequencer table.

sample(next_ctrl=0)[source]

Acquire a sample

See also

sample_mu()

Parameters

next_ctrl – ADC control word for the next sample

Returns

The ADC result packet (Volt)

sample_mu(next_ctrl=0)[source]

Acquire a sample:

Perform a conversion and transfer the sample.

Parameters

next_ctrl – ADC control word for the next sample

Returns

The ADC result packet (machine units)

set_gain_mu(channel, gain)[source]

Set instrumentation amplifier gain of a channel.

The four gain settings (0, 1, 2, 3) corresponds to gains of (1, 10, 100, 1000) respectively.

Parameters
  • channel – Channel index

  • gain – Gain setting

artiq.coredevice.novogorny.adc_channel(data)[source]

Return the channel index from a result packet

artiq.coredevice.novogorny.adc_ctrl(channel=1, softspan=7, valid=1)[source]

Build a LTC2335-16 control word

artiq.coredevice.novogorny.adc_data(data)[source]

Return the ADC value from a result packet

artiq.coredevice.novogorny.adc_softspan(data)[source]

Return the softspan configuration index from a result packet

artiq.coredevice.novogorny.adc_value(data, v_ref=5.0)[source]

Convert a ADC result packet to SI units (Volt)

artiq.coredevice.fastino module

RTIO driver for the Fastino 32channel, 16 bit, 2.5 MS/s per channel, streaming DAC.

class artiq.coredevice.fastino.Fastino(dmgr, channel, core_device=core, log2_width=0)[source]

Fastino 32-channel, 16-bit, 2.5 MS/s per channel streaming DAC

The RTIO PHY supports staging DAC data before transmitting them by writing to the DAC RTIO addresses, if a channel is not “held” by setting its bit using set_hold(), the next frame will contain the update. For the DACs held, the update is triggered explicitly by setting the corresponding bit using set_update(). Update is self-clearing. This enables atomic DAC updates synchronized to a frame edge.

The log2_width=0 RTIO layout uses one DAC channel per RTIO address and a dense RTIO address space. The RTIO words are narrow. (32 bit) and few-channel updates are efficient. There is the least amount of DAC state tracking in kernels, at the cost of more DMA and RTIO data. The setting here and in the RTIO PHY (gateware) must match.

Other log2_width (up to log2_width=5) settings pack multiple (in powers of two) DAC channels into one group and into one RTIO write. The RTIO data width increases accordingly. The log2_width LSBs of the RTIO address for a DAC channel write must be zero and the address space is sparse. For log2_width=5 the RTIO data is 512 bit wide.

If log2_width is zero, the set_dac()/set_dac_mu() interface must be used. If non-zero, the set_group()/set_group_mu() interface must be used.

Parameters
  • channel – RTIO channel number

  • core_device – Core device name (default: “core”)

  • log2_width – Width of DAC channel group (logarithm base 2). Value must match the corresponding value in the RTIO PHY (gateware).

init()[source]

Initialize the device.

This clears reset, unsets DAC_CLR, enables AFE_PWR, clears error counters, then enables error counting

read(addr)[source]

Read from Fastino register.

TODO: untested

Parameters

addr – Address to read from.

Returns

The data read.

set_cfg(reset=0, afe_power_down=0, dac_clr=0, clr_err=0)[source]

Set configuration bits.

Parameters
  • reset – Reset SPI PLL and SPI clock domain.

  • afe_power_down – Disable AFE power.

  • dac_clr – Assert all 32 DAC_CLR signals setting all DACs to mid-scale (0 V).

  • clr_err – Clear error counters and PLL reset indicator. This clears the sticky red error LED. Must be cleared to enable error counting.

set_dac(dac, voltage)[source]

Set DAC data to given voltage.

Parameters
  • dac – DAC channel (0-31).

  • voltage – Desired output voltage.

set_dac_mu(dac, data)[source]

Write DAC data in machine units.

Parameters
  • dac – DAC channel to write to (0-31).

  • data – DAC word to write, 16 bit unsigned integer, in machine units.

set_group(dac, voltage)[source]

Set DAC group data to given voltage.

Parameters
  • dac – DAC channel (0-31).

  • voltage – Desired output voltage.

set_group_mu(dac: artiq.compiler.types.TMono(‘int’, OrderedDict([‘width’, artiq.compiler.types.TValue(32)])), data: artiq.compiler.types.TMono(‘list’, OrderedDict([‘elt’, artiq.compiler.types.TMono(‘int’, OrderedDict([‘width’, artiq.compiler.types.TValue(32)]))])))[source]

Write a group of DAC channels in machine units.

Parameters
  • dac – First channel in DAC channel group (0-31). The log2_width LSBs must be zero.

  • data – List of DAC data pairs (2x16 bit unsigned) to write, in machine units. Data exceeding group size is ignored. If the list length is less than group size, the remaining DAC channels within the group are cleared to 0 (machine units).

set_hold(hold)[source]

Set channels to manual update.

Parameters

hold – Bit mask of channels to hold (32 bit).

set_leds(leds)[source]

Set the green user-defined LEDs

Parameters

leds – LED status, 8 bit integer each bit corresponding to one green LED.

update(update)[source]

Schedule channels for update.

Parameters

update – Bit mask of channels to update (32 bit).

voltage_group_to_mu(voltage, data)[source]

Convert SI Volts to packed DAC channel group machine units.

Parameters
  • voltage – List of SI Volt voltages.

  • data – List of DAC channel data pairs to write to. Half the length of voltage.

voltage_to_mu(voltage)[source]

Convert SI Volts to DAC machine units.

Parameters

voltage – Voltage in SI Volts.

Returns

DAC data word in machine units, 16 bit integer.

write(addr, data)[source]

Write data to a Fastino register.

Parameters
  • addr – Address to write to.

  • data – Data to write.

Miscellaneous

artiq.coredevice.suservo module

class artiq.coredevice.suservo.Channel(dmgr, channel, servo_device)[source]

Sampler-Urukul Servo channel

Parameters
  • channel – RTIO channel number

  • servo_device – Name of the parent SUServo device

dds_offset_to_mu(offset)[source]

Convert IIR offset (negative setpoint) from units of full scale to machine units (see set_dds_mu(), set_dds_offset_mu()).

For positive ADC voltages as setpoints, this should be negative. Due to rounding and representation as two’s complement, offset=1 can not be represented while offset=-1 can.

get_profile_mu(profile, data)[source]

Retrieve profile data.

Profile data is returned in the data argument in machine units packed as: [ftw >> 16, b1, pow, adc | (delay << 8), offset, a1, ftw & 0xffff, b0].

See also

The individual fields are described in set_iir_mu() and set_dds_mu().

This method advances the timeline by 32 µs and consumes all slack.

Parameters
  • profile – Profile number (0-31)

  • data – List of 8 integers to write the profile data into

get_y(profile)[source]

Get a profile’s IIR state (filter output, Y0).

The IIR state is also know as the “integrator”, or the DDS amplitude scale factor. It is 17 bits wide and unsigned.

This method does not advance the timeline but consumes all slack.

If reading servo state through this method collides with the servo writing that same data, the data can become invalid. To ensure consistent and valid data, stop the servo before using this method.

Parameters

profile – Profile number (0-31)

Returns

IIR filter output in Y0 units of full scale

get_y_mu(profile)[source]

Get a profile’s IIR state (filter output, Y0) in machine units.

The IIR state is also know as the “integrator”, or the DDS amplitude scale factor. It is 17 bits wide and unsigned.

This method does not advance the timeline but consumes all slack.

If reading servo state through this method collides with the servo writing that same data, the data can become invalid. To ensure consistent and valid data, stop the servo before using this method.

Parameters

profile – Profile number (0-31)

Returns

17 bit unsigned Y0

set(en_out, en_iir=0, profile=0)[source]

Operate channel.

This method does not advance the timeline. Output RF switch setting takes effect immediately and is independent of any other activity (profile settings, other channels). The RF switch behaves like artiq.coredevice.ttl.TTLOut. RTIO event replacement is supported. IIR updates take place once the RF switch has been enabled for the configured delay and the profile setting has been stable. Profile changes take between one and two servo cycles to reach the DDS.

Parameters
  • en_out – RF switch enable

  • en_iir – IIR updates enable

  • profile – Active profile (0-31)

set_dds(profile, frequency, offset, phase=0.0)[source]

Set profile DDS coefficients.

This method advances the timeline by four servo memory accesses. Profile parameter changes are not synchronized. Activate a different profile or stop the servo to ensure synchronous changes.

Parameters
  • profile – Profile number (0-31)

  • frequency – DDS frequency in Hz

  • offset – IIR offset (negative setpoint) in units of full scale, see dds_offset_to_mu()

  • phase – DDS phase in turns

set_dds_mu(profile, ftw, offs, pow_=0)[source]

Set profile DDS coefficients in machine units.

See also

set_amplitude()

Parameters
  • profile – Profile number (0-31)

  • ftw – Frequency tuning word (32 bit unsigned)

  • offs – IIR offset (17 bit signed)

  • pow – Phase offset word (16 bit)

set_dds_offset(profile, offset)[source]

Set only IIR offset in DDS coefficient profile.

See set_dds() for setting the complete DDS profile.

Parameters
  • profile – Profile number (0-31)

  • offset – IIR offset (negative setpoint) in units of full scale

set_dds_offset_mu(profile, offs)[source]

Set only IIR offset in DDS coefficient profile.

See set_dds_mu() for setting the complete DDS profile.

Parameters
  • profile – Profile number (0-31)

  • offs – IIR offset (17 bit signed)

set_iir(profile, adc, kp, ki=0.0, g=0.0, delay=0.0)[source]

Set profile IIR coefficients.

This method advances the timeline by four servo memory accesses. Profile parameter changes are not synchronized. Activate a different profile or stop the servo to ensure synchronous changes.

Gains are given in units of output full per scale per input full scale.

The transfer function is (up to time discretization and coefficient quantization errors):

\[H(s) = k_p + \frac{k_i}{s + \frac{k_i}{g}}\]
Where:
  • \(s = \sigma + i\omega\) is the complex frequency

  • \(k_p\) is the proportional gain

  • \(k_i\) is the integrator gain

  • \(g\) is the integrator gain limit

Parameters
  • profile – Profile number (0-31)

  • adc – ADC channel to take IIR input from (0-7)

  • kp – Proportional gain (1). This is usually negative (closed loop, positive ADC voltage, positive setpoint). When 0, this implements a pure I controller.

  • ki – Integrator gain (rad/s). When 0 (the default) this implements a pure P controller. Same sign as kp.

  • g – Integrator gain limit (1). When 0 (the default) the integrator gain limit is infinite. Same sign as ki.

  • delay – Delay (in seconds, 0-300 µs) before allowing IIR updates after invoking set(). This is rounded to the nearest number of servo cycles (~1.2 µs). Since the RF switch (set()) can be opened at any time relative to the servo cycle, the first DDS update that carries updated IIR data will occur approximately between delay + 1 cycle and delay + 2 cycles after set().

set_iir_mu(profile, adc, a1, b0, b1, dly=0)[source]

Set profile IIR coefficients in machine units.

The recurrence relation is (all data signed and MSB aligned):

\[a_0 y_n = a_1 y_{n - 1} + b_0 (x_n + o)/2 + b_1 (x_{n - 1} + o)/2\]

Where:

  • \(y_n\) and \(y_{n-1}\) are the current and previous filter outputs, clipped to \([0, 1[\).

  • \(x_n\) and \(x_{n-1}\) are the current and previous filter inputs in \([-1, 1[\).

  • \(o\) is the offset

  • \(a_0\) is the normalization factor \(2^{11}\)

  • \(a_1\) is the feedback gain

  • \(b_0\) and \(b_1\) are the feedforward gains for the two delays

See also

set_iir()

Parameters
  • profile – Profile number (0-31)

  • adc – ADC channel to take IIR input from (0-7)

  • a1 – 18 bit signed A1 coefficient (Y1 coefficient, feedback, integrator gain)

  • b0 – 18 bit signed B0 coefficient (recent, X0 coefficient, feed forward, proportional gain)

  • b1 – 18 bit signed B1 coefficient (old, X1 coefficient, feed forward, proportional gain)

  • dly – IIR update suppression time. In units of IIR cycles (~1.2 µs, 0-255).

set_y(profile, y)[source]

Set a profile’s IIR state (filter output, Y0).

The IIR state is also know as the “integrator”, or the DDS amplitude scale factor. It is 17 bits wide and unsigned.

This method must not be used when the servo could be writing to the same location. Either deactivate the profile, or deactivate IIR updates, or disable servo iterations.

This method advances the timeline by one servo memory access.

Parameters
  • profile – Profile number (0-31)

  • y – IIR state in units of full scale

set_y_mu(profile, y)[source]

Set a profile’s IIR state (filter output, Y0) in machine units.

The IIR state is also know as the “integrator”, or the DDS amplitude scale factor. It is 17 bits wide and unsigned.

This method must not be used when the servo could be writing to the same location. Either deactivate the profile, or deactivate IIR updates, or disable servo iterations.

This method advances the timeline by one servo memory access.

Parameters
  • profile – Profile number (0-31)

  • y – 17 bit unsigned Y0

class artiq.coredevice.suservo.SUServo(dmgr, channel, pgia_device, cpld0_device, cpld1_device, dds0_device, dds1_device, gains=0, core_device=core)[source]

Sampler-Urukul Servo parent and configuration device.

Sampler-Urukul Servo is a integrated device controlling one 8-channel ADC (Sampler) and two 4-channel DDS (Urukuls) with a DSP engine connecting the ADC data and the DDS output amplitudes to enable feedback. SU Servo can for example be used to implement intensity stabilization of laser beams with an amplifier and AOM driven by Urukul and a photodetector connected to Sampler.

Additionally SU Servo supports multiple preconfigured profiles per channel and features like automatic integrator hold.

Notes

  • See the SU Servo variant of the Kasli target for an example of how to connect the gateware and the devices. Sampler and each Urukul need two EEM connections.

  • Ensure that both Urukuls are AD9910 variants and have the on-board dip switches set to 1100 (first two on, last two off).

  • Refer to the Sampler and Urukul documentation and the SU Servo example device database for runtime configuration of the devices (PLLs, gains, clock routing etc.)

Parameters
  • channel – RTIO channel number

  • pgia_device – Name of the Sampler PGIA gain setting SPI bus

  • cpld0_device – Name of the first Urukul CPLD SPI bus

  • cpld1_device – Name of the second Urukul CPLD SPI bus

  • dds0_device – Name of the AD9910 device for the DDS on the first Urukul

  • dds1_device – Name of the AD9910 device for the DDS on the second Urukul

  • gains – Initial value for PGIA gains shift register (default: 0x0000). Knowledge of this state is not transferred between experiments.

  • core_device – Core device name

get_adc(channel)[source]

Get the latest ADC reading (IIR filter input X0).

This method does not advance the timeline but consumes all slack.

If reading servo state through this method collides with the servo writing that same data, the data can become invalid. To ensure consistent and valid data, stop the servo before using this method.

The PGIA gain setting must be known prior to using this method, either by setting the gain (set_pgia_mu()) or by supplying it (gains or via the constructor/device database).

Parameters

adc – ADC channel number (0-7)

Returns

ADC voltage

get_adc_mu(adc)[source]

Get the latest ADC reading (IIR filter input X0) in machine units.

This method does not advance the timeline but consumes all slack.

If reading servo state through this method collides with the servo writing that same data, the data can become invalid. To ensure consistent and valid data, stop the servo before using this method.

Parameters

adc – ADC channel number (0-7)

Returns

17 bit signed X0

get_status()[source]

Get current SU Servo status.

This method does not advance the timeline but consumes all slack.

The done bit indicates that a SU Servo cycle has completed. It is pulsed for one RTIO cycle every SU Servo cycle and asserted continuously when the servo is not enabled and the pipeline has drained (the last DDS update is done).

This method returns and clears the clip indicator for all channels. An asserted clip indicator corresponds to the servo having encountered an input signal on an active channel that would have resulted in the IIR state exceeding the output range.

Returns

Status. Bit 0: enabled, bit 1: done, bits 8-15: channel clip indicators.

init()[source]

Initialize the servo, Sampler and both Urukuls.

Leaves the servo disabled (see set_config()), resets and configures all DDS.

Urukul initialization is performed blindly as there is no readback from the DDS or the CPLDs.

This method does not alter the profile configuration memory or the channel controls.

read(addr)[source]

Read from servo memory.

This method does not advance the timeline but consumes all slack.

Parameters

addr – Memory location address.

set_config(enable)[source]

Set SU Servo configuration.

This method advances the timeline by one servo memory access. It does not support RTIO event replacement.

Parameters

(int) (enable) – Enable servo operation. Enabling starts servo iterations beginning with the ADC sampling stage. The first DDS update will happen about two servo cycles (~2.3 µs) after enabling the servo. The delay is deterministic. This also provides a mean for synchronization of servo updates to other RTIO activity. Disabling takes up to two servo cycles (~2.3 µs) to clear the processing pipeline.

set_pgia_mu(channel, gain)[source]

Set instrumentation amplifier gain of a ADC channel.

The four gain settings (0, 1, 2, 3) corresponds to gains of (1, 10, 100, 1000) respectively.

Parameters
  • channel – Channel index

  • gain – Gain setting

write(addr, value)[source]

Write to servo memory.

This method advances the timeline by one coarse RTIO cycle.

Parameters
  • addr – Memory location address.

  • value – Data to be written.

artiq.coredevice.suservo.adc_mu_to_volts(x, gain)[source]

Convert servo ADC data from machine units to Volt.

artiq.coredevice.suservo.y_mu_to_full_scale(y)[source]

Convert servo Y data from machine units to units of full scale.

artiq.coredevice.grabber module

class artiq.coredevice.grabber.Grabber(dmgr, channel_base, res_width=12, count_shift=0, core_device=core)[source]

Driver for the Grabber camera interface.

gate_roi(mask)[source]

Defines which ROI engines produce input events.

At the end of each video frame, the output from each ROI engine that has been enabled by the mask is enqueued into the RTIO input FIFO.

This function sets the mask at the current position of the RTIO time cursor.

Setting the mask using this function is atomic; in other words, if the system is in the middle of processing a frame and the mask is changed, the processing will complete using the value of the mask that it started with.

Parameters

mask – bitmask enabling or disabling each ROI engine.

gate_roi_pulse(mask, dt)[source]

Sets a temporary mask for the specified duration (in seconds), before disabling all ROI engines.

input_mu(data)[source]

Retrieves the accumulated values for one frame from the ROI engines. Blocks until values are available.

The input list must be a list of integers of the same length as there are enabled ROI engines. This method replaces the elements of the input list with the outputs of the enabled ROI engines, sorted by number.

If the number of elements in the list does not match the number of ROI engines that produced output, an exception will be raised during this call or the next.

setup_roi(n, x0, y0, x1, y1)[source]

Defines the coordinates of a ROI.

The coordinates are set around the current position of the RTIO time cursor.

The user must keep the ROI engine disabled for the duration of more than one video frame after calling this function, as the output generated for that video frame is undefined.

Advances the timeline by 4 coarse RTIO cycles.

exception artiq.coredevice.grabber.OutOfSyncException[source]

Raised when an incorrect number of ROI engine outputs has been retrieved from the RTIO input FIFO.